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References Byczkowski A.: Hydrology (in Polish), Vol. I and II, Publishing House of Warsaw Agriculture University (Wydawnictwo SGGW), Warszawa 1996 Gumbel, E. J.: Statistics of Extremes . Columbia University Press 1958 Jednoral T., Sztobryn M., Milkowska M.: Application of position statistics for prediction of extreme levels of Baltic Sea in Polish coastal zone (in Polish), Inżynieria Morska i Geotechnika, no.5/ 2008 Kaczmarek Z.: Effectiveness of estimation of maximum flow rates of a given return period (in Polish), Archiwum Hydrotechniki, vol. 4, no. 3

REFERENCES 1. Banachowicz A., Bober R., Wolski A., Banachowicz G.: Statistical Research into GPS and DGPS Measurements in West Pomerania in the years 1996–2004, Reports on Geodesy, No. 2, 2005, pp. 331–335. 2. Beškovnik B.: Possibilities for Motorways of the Sea Development in the Eastern Part of the Adriatic Sea. Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 20(1),2013, pp. 87–93. 3. Cydejko J., Wawruch R.: Examination of Operating Parameters of the Local Differential GPS System in Static Conditions (in Polish). Gdynia Maritime Academy Publishing House, Gdynia 1993. 4

An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

References Demel, M. (1973). Critical sketches about physical culture . Warsaw: SiT. [in Polish] Lipoñski, W. (2004). Rochwist and Palant. Study old polish sport etnology and on background of european tradition motor games . Poznan: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego. [in Polish] Malinowski, B. (2000). Unit, community, culture . Warsaw: PWN. [in Polish] Tyszkiewicz, J. (2002). Tatars in Poland and Europe. Fragment of history . Pultusk: Akademia Humanistyczna. [in Polish] Gorka, O. (1935). Orientation notes about polish steak Tatars and foreign. Rocznik Tatarski

References Nawrot D.: Navy officers in the II Republic of Poland. Bellona Publishing House, Warsaw 2005 (in Polish). Komorowski A., Nawrot A., Przybylski J.: Graduates of Polish naval academies in years 1922 - 1995. PNA Publications, Gdynia 1995 (in Polish). Czyż W.: Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (Faculty of Technology) at OSMW , WSMW and PNA in years 1946-1991 (in Polish).

., Beresnevičiūtė V., Leončikas T., Frėjutė-Rakauskienė M., Šliavaitė K., Šutinienė I., Žilinskaitė V., Georg Heinrich H. & Alekseeva, O. (2011). Contextual and Empirical Reports on Ethnic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. The Polish Minority in Lithuania. EC. European Research Area. Available at: [Accessed on 28 August 2015]. Матулионис А. В., Фреюте-Ракаускене М. & Шлявайте К. (2013). ‘Между локальной и европейской идентичностью:анализ этнических групп (русские, поляки, белорусы) в Литве

Transfer in Poland. 5 th triple Helix paper, Turin, Italy, 18-21 May 2005 Niedbalska G Innovation Activities in Polish Industry in 1998- 2000: Main Results from the GUS 2001, Innovation Survey, Working Paper № 25, SSEEC, UCL, London, 22 p Pearce R: Globalization of R&D: key features and the role of TNCs , Proceedings of the Expert Meeting Globalization of R&D and Developing Countries , United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, pp. 29-42, 2005 Polish Ministry of Economy. Strategy for Increasing the Innovativeness of the Economy for the years 2007

References 1. Renson R. (2009). The come-back of traditional sports and games. Museum International 43(2), 77-81. DOI: 0.1111/ j.1468-0033.1991.tb00947.x. 2. Lipoński W. (2004). Rochwist and Palant. Ethnological study of traditional Polish movement games and play against a background of European tradition. Poznań: AWF. [in Polish] 3. Bronikowska M. (2013). Slavic traditions of folk forms of physical culture as exemplified by selected nations. Poznań: AWF. [in Polish] 4. Cieśliński I., Chaliburda I., Piech K., Cieśliński R. (2007). Ethnology of sport and


The article presents a review of contemporary Polish military topographic maps, with special focus on those in the scale of 1:50,000. They are basic maps used in all armies of NATO countries at tactical stages.

After the political breakthrough of 1989 Polish political elites saw the future of our country in the structures of Western Europe, but the Warsaw Pact still existed, and Soviet Army units were stationed in Poland and in the German Democratic Republic. All the Warsaw Pact countries used maps in the “1942” coordinate system and followed standardized rules of map elaboration. The article presents transformation of those maps into NATO standards, the first stage of which was elaboration of the, so-called, maps adapted to NATO standards.

At the end of 1990s there started elaboration of a new topographic map of Poland in the scale of 1:50,000. The project involved preparation of a level 2 map, in NATO nomenclature known as VMap Level 2, and simultaneously using the same base for to generate 580 sheets of a paper map in 1:50,000. Map elaboration finished in 2006 and in the following years the project was enhanced with publication of new maps based on high-resolution image data.

Since 2003 Polish cartographers have been participating in Multinational Geospatial Co-production Program (MGCP). Within the program high-resolution vector data is being prepared for selected areas of interest. They are mainly areas of current or potential military conflict, terrorist threat, ethnic or religious conflict, natural disaster, etc. MGCP data is not a ready product meant for direct usage, and without proper preparation it is simply unreadable. Therefore, special computer applications were developed to facilitate fast preparation of topographic maps in 1:50,000: MGCP Derived Graphic (MDG) and lately MGCP Topographic Map (MTM). Such maps differ from Polish topographic maps both in contents (to a lesser extent) and in graphic form (to a larger extent). They contain less objects, but include aerial information.

- posterior curvatures of the spine in athletes practising selected sports. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 18(2), 112-116. 16. Steib S., Zahn P., Zu Eulenburg C., Pfeifer K., Zech A. (2016). Time-dependent postural control adaptations following a neuromuscular warm-up in female handball players: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 8, 33. 17. Daneshfar A., Gahreman D.E., Koozehchian M.S., Amani Shalamzari S., Hassanzadeh Sablouei M., Rosemann T. et al. (2018). Multi-directional repeated sprint is a valid and reliable test for