Macroeconomic conditions of pay in Polish economy in 1990-2007
Remuneration is a crucial element of economic processes. What it means is that the processes of production, distribution, exchange and consumption are not possible without a well planned pay strategy.
There are many factors which influence salaries. The aim of this survey is to present salary stimulants of macroeconomic character. Those include GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, cost of work, protective package (unemployment benefit), efficiency, legislation protecting employees' rights and legislation regulating employment relations. Each of these macroeconomic issues determine the level of salaries to a different extent. While analysing relations between those stimulants we should not jump to wrong conclusions explaining salary levels.
The aim of this research is to look at how the recent economic crisis, which was so strong that its consequences are still apparent nearly six years later, impacted Poland, which has been resilient to it compared with other economies, and what role was played by Poland's internationalization or its openness. The approach involves a detailed analysis of not only such staple macroeconomic variables as gross domestic product and changes in the trade structure but also of such openness factors as shifs in inward foreign direct investment across industries and the changes (for example, employment and productivity) seen in multinational firms present in Poland. The main finding is that the openness of the Polish economy allowed it to rake in various benefits after 2007 while not being too exposed to the international arena (for example, membership in the euro zone). Thus, Poland showed a positive balance relating to the impacts on the Polish economy emerging from the crisis.
In Search of a Strategy for Innovation Policy of Polish Economy
The paper considers the very important problem of innovativeness of Polish economy with particular attention given to its innovation policy. The purpose of the paper is to explain the character of innovation policy which has been implemented in Poland since the beginning of economic transformation. Additionally, the paper attempts to evaluate the level of innovativeness of Polish economy. The analysis is based on the set of indicators applied in the European Innovation Scoreboard and Statistical Survey presenting in Statistical Yearbook of Poland.
Developing effective and consistent innovation policy requires choice of a particular strategy of innovation development which forms the basis for the policy. One can distinguish two such models in modern economy. In the first model, scientific and technical achievements of domestic R&D sector constitute the main factor indispensable for development of innovation. Investments in domestic scientific and development research determine invention and innovation supply. This model is applied in innovation policy of well-developed economies (Japan, the USA, Germany and Sweden). In contrast, the second model, referred to as adaptive, is based on import of new technologies. Poland should develop an adaptive model, however, its effectiveness will be dependent on the increase of the level of R&D investments, especially in the case of enterprises. The problem is that creative adaptation of imported technologies requires appropriate investments in financing domestic R&D institutions.
The paper is divided into three parts. First deals with the characteristics of innovative potential and innovative activity of Polish economy. Second is devoted to the problem of innovation policy in Poland. Considerations presented in this part allow to come to a few conclusions concerning evaluation of innovation policy implemented in Poland. The last part discusses the issue of innovation strategy suitable for development of Polish economy in long run.
Because operationally financialization may be detected by the increase of interest, dividends, or capital gains, the paper tries to answer the question as to whether the increased dividend payments observed in Poland can be a symptom of financialization. Analysis of basic tendencies of changes in propensities to pay dividends, values, structures and payout ratios of companies quoted in the years 1992-2014 on the Warsaw Stock Exchange tend towards the conclusion that the increase of dividend payouts at this time is not a sign of financialization of the economy. But because most of the phenomena connected with the dividend policy of the companies quoted on the WSE show similar tendencies to those of the developed equity markets, this may be a symptom of the financialization of the Polish economy in the future.
Apart from general business cycles, market economies are characterized by their specific cycles, which also include banking cycles. Fluctuations whose sequence over time creates the banking cycles are absolute or/and relative changes in the activity of banks, manifested in the form of oscillations in the supply of money and bank credits granted for investment or consumption purposes.
The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of general business cycles on changes in the activity of the central bank and commercial banks, and to examine a returnable relationship between banking activities and business cycles. The paper consists of two parts. The first one presents a theoretical hypothesis connected with the analyzed relations. The second part contains the results of the empirical analysis of the morphology of the cycles identified in the Polish economy. In the process of identifying the cycles under analysis, the concept of deviation cycles was taken into account. Deseasonalization was conducted using the Tramo/Seats procedure as part of the Demetra 2.0 package, and in the process of isolating cycles, the Hodrick-Prescott filter was accepted.
, E. (2017b), International competitive position of the Polisheconomy against the backdrop of the Visegrad Group countries–changes in the post-accession period. Trends in the World Economy Vol. 9/2017, pp. 119–130.
Porter, M., Rivkin, J. (2012), The Looming Challenge to U.S. Competitiveness , ‘Harvard Business Review’, No. 90 (3).
Siebert, H. (2000), Zum Paradigma des Standortwettbewerbs. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Thore, S., Tarverdyan, R. (2016). The sustainable competitiveness of nations , Technological Forecasting and Social Change, No. 106
The growth of the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Polish economy and their influence on the labour market
The small and medium-sized enterprises and self-employment significantly contribute to pro-employment growth in the economy. The main aim of the paper is to describe the determinants of development of SME sector in Poland and to show its significance as a generator of jobs.
The article has been structure as follows. Section 2 provides the characteristics and importance of the small and medium-sized enterprises. Section 3 outlines the main provisions of the European Charter for Small Enterprises. Section 4 presents data illustrating SMEs' growth trends and significance in Poland in the years 2003-2007 by the type of an enterprise, employment, and the share in GDP, foreign trade and investment. Section 5 discusses government's policies towards utilising the sector's growth potential for Poland. Section 6 presents major conclusions derived from the earlier discussion.
In this article the author attempts to analyze the expected features and behavior of talented leaders existing in the three sectors of the Polish economy according to presented literature the meaning of talent. The author presents confrontation between the most popular ways to explore talented individuals connected with IQ tests and a more adequate solution based on a practical approach. The in-depth diagnosis of the problems presents the basic expectations of employees towards organizational leaders in the three sectors of the Polish economy - public, private and NGO. The formulated questions in this article are appropriate for the needs of the first stage of leadership research. The conducted study shows expectations of employees from the last 23 years since the transformation of Poland and the 6 to 8 years since ISO standards were implemented in different Polish organizations and European Funds have supported Polish entrepreneurs and their personnel. In this article it also shows the results of international research about expectations of employees and future managers towards organizational leaders in different countries in Central-Eastern Europe.
Gorajski, M., & Ulrichs, M. (2016). Optymalne wrażliwe na ryzyko strategie polityki pieniężnej dla Polski (Optimal risk-sensitive monetary policy for the Polisheconomy). Bank i Kredyt, 47, 1-32.
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Influence of the Climate Policy of the European Union on the Competitiveness of Pollution-generating Sectors of the Polish Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development
The text analyses the influence of the EU climate policy on the competitiveness pollution-generating of sectors of the Polish economy. Study of literature and the results of the questionnaire survey, carried out in 2008 in enterprises located in Poland and representing the steel, glass, aluminium and cement industries became a basis for formulating conclusions concerning the consequences of the climate policy already implemented and planned after 2012.
The EU climate policy, particularly the common system of emission allowances trade, makes the enterprises face new developmental barriers. The expected increase in production costs will not only slow down the production dynamics, but may also entail lowering the competitiveness of Polish companies compared to companies from outside the EU, to which the greenhouse gasses emission limits do not apply. Adverse consequences for employment and for regional development should also be considered indisputable. If that was accompanied by an emission leakage outside the EU, achieving the global purposes of the climate policy would also become questionable.
The businesses surveyed represent industries which are pollution generators by their nature and even ecologically-oriented technological progress is incapable of ensuring considerable emission reductions without general switching of the economy to renewable energy sources.