On the basis of available published materials and his own research, the author identifies the 27 most attractive springs in the Polish Lowlands. He describes their most important landscape and tourism assets - the relief of the spring outlet area, landforms, the character of the spring itself and the accompanying tourism infrastructure. The article presents available data regarding the water discharged by the springs: volume, temperature, colour and medicinal properties; as well as pointing to associated interesting natural features, examples of religious architecture and historical curiosities. The distribution of springs in the Polish Lowlands is uneven, with the majority found in the area of the morainic uplands, as well as in deeper river valleys and lake troughs
–33. Vassallo R., Grimaldi G. M., Di Maio C. (2015) Pore water pressures induced by historical rain series in a clayey landslide: 3D modelling, Landslides , 12 , 731–744. Zabuski L., Świdziński W., Kulczykowski M., Mrozek T., Laskowicz I. (2015) Monitoring of landslides in the Brda river valley in Koronowo (PolishLowlands), Environmental Earth Sciences , 73 , 8609–8619. Zabuski L., Świdziński W., Kulczykowski M. (2013) Landslide in a scarp at the abutment of the narrow-gauge railway bridge in Koronowo near Bydgoszcz, Proceedings of XXVI Scientific-Technical Conference
valley bottom morphodynamics. Earth Surf. Process. Landf. 40, 2015. 9. Falkowski E.: Historia i prognoza rozwoju układu koryta wybranych odcinków rzek nizinnych Polski. Biuletyn Geologiczny, tom 12, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1971. 10. Falkowski T.: The importance of recognition of polygeny for the rational utilisation of river valleys in the PolishLowland. Proceedings International Symposium Engineering Geology and the Environment, Athens. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1997. 11. Falkowski T.: Basement of the alluvia influence on the channel pattern in example
., issue 49 (3/1962). Pokojski W., 2002, Wpływ warunków fizycznogeograficznych na kształtowanie się przepływów niżówkowych rzek nizinnych w Polsce [The influence of the physical-geographical conditions on the course of low discharges of the Polishlowland rivers; in Polish] Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, Warsaw University. Salas D.J., 1992, Analysis and modeling of hydrologic time series, [in:] Handbook of hydrology , D.R. Maidment (ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York.
The study was conducted on 320 sheep of two breeds: Polish Heath Sheep (PHS) and Polish Lowland Sheep (PLS). Udder health status was assessed based on somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological examination of milk. Cells of the immune system (leukocyte populations and lymphocyte subpopulations) were identified in the blood and milk of sheep by flow cytometry, using a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies and fluorescent dyes. The study showed that the highest proportion of neutrophils and a lower percentage of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, WC1-N2+) in milk and blood occurred in sheep of both breeds in which milk SCC ranged between 201 and 300×103 cells/ml. In light of existing research, these results suggest that fluctuations in somatic cell count of ewe milk are physiologically determined up to 200×103cells/ml and result from udder health disturbances above this level.
Transformation from natural (thermal contraction) to anthropogenic (resource exploitation) depressions in the Krotoszyn-Koźmin-Raszków area (Polish Lowland)
An exceptional concentration of almost identical depressions exist near the small towns of Krotoszyn, Koźmin and Raszków (southern Wielkopolska). Their origin is, however, different from that of the typical post glacial-relief: they are Man-made enlarged thermal-contraction structures that developed at the very end of the Middle Polish (Warthian) glaciation and during the North Polish (Weichselian) glaciation, most probably under periglacial conditions.
The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) in trophically diverse Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols. Efforts to establish the relationship between enzymatic activity and physico-chemical properties of various subtypes of Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols were attempted. Another aim was to determine the effect of vegetation on the properties of soil surface levels. The study was conducted on 94 plots located in nature reserves and national parks in the Polish lowland area. Dehydrogenase activity and urease showed large variations in the subtypes of the distinguished Brunic Arenosols and Cambisols. Dehydrogenases and urease activity in surface layers of fresh humus of Cambisols and Brunic Arenosols was strongly associated with the plants. This is confirmed by the relationship between the enzymatic activity and the type of accumulated humus substances, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and humus horizons reaction.
Niedźwiedziny, near Skoki (eastern Great PolishLowland)]. M. Sc. thesis Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, 90 pp. Fielding, C.R. & Webb, J.A., 1996. Facies and cyclicity of the Late Permian Bainmedart Coal Measures in the N Prince Charles Mts, MacRobertson Land, Antarctica. Sedimentology 43, 295–322. Fredsoe, J., 1982. Shape and dimensions of stationary dunes in rivers . Journal of the Hydraulical Divsion. American Society of Civil Engineers 108, 932–947. Gruszka, B., Morawski, W. & Zieliński, T., 2012. Sedimentary record of a Pleistocene ice-sheet interlobate zone (NE
When identifying the conditions required for the sustainable and long-term exploitation of geothermal resources it is very important to assess the dynamics of processes linked to the formation, migration and deposition of particles in geothermal systems. Such particles often cause clogging and damage to the boreholes and source reservoirs. Solid particles: products of corrosion processes, secondary precipitation from geothermal water or particles from the rock formations holding the source reservoir, may settle in the surface installations and lead to clogging of the injection wells. The paper proposes a mathematical model for changes in the absorbance index and the water injection pressure required over time. This was determined from the operating conditions for a model system consisting of a doublet of geothermal wells (extraction and injection well) and using the water occurring in Liassic sandstone structures in the Polish Lowland. Calculations were based on real data and conditions found in the Skierniewice GT-2 source reservoir intake. The main product of secondary mineral precipitation is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and calcite. It has been demonstrated that clogging of the active zone causes a particularly high surge in injection pressure during the fi rst 24 hours of pumping. In subsequent hours, pressure increases are close to linear and gradually grow to a level of ~2.2 MPa after 120 hours. The absorbance index decreases at a particularly fast rate during the fi rst six hours (Figure 4). Over the period of time analysed, its value decreases from over 42 to approximately 18 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours from initiation of the injection. These estimated results have been confi rmed in practice by real-life investigation of an injection well. The absorbance index recorded during the hydrodynamic tests decreased to approximately 20 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours.
The aim of the present study is to monitor changes in the location of the groundwater table in the catchment area of the River Gwda within the Quaternary and Neogene water-bearing level over a 35-year period, between 1981 and 2015. In addition, on account of very diverse total annual precipitation levels in particular parts of the catchment, attempts were made to determine the influence of precipitation on the location of the groundwater table. By correlating groundwater level and meteorological parameters (precipitation), it was discovered that precipitation in the previous year made the largest impact on the groundwater table. Moreover, low precipitation totals in the southern part of the catchment are not discernible in groundwater table fluctuations, which is linked to the location of the observation well within the drainage zone as well as to water ascension from deeper aquifers.