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Wild bees (Apiformes) were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and radish (Raphanus sativus). Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.


The species composition and number of visitations of food plants by bees were studied in refuge sites in agricultural landscapes and in selected crops. The habitat fragments of interest are characterised in terms of pollinator diversity at genus level and the use of food plants by individual genera. Trophic and temporal niche overlap is described for individual genera and the honey bee Apis mellifera in different habitat types. Factors influencing the manner of use of individual plant species by pollinating insects are identified


INTRODUCTION: Envenomation by poisons of biological origin is very common globally in the tropical and subtropical areas mainly, where the biological diversity of the species clearly leads to evolution of highly toxic species. The weather warming trend in Bulgaria, whether cyclic or permanent, allows for a change in the biological response of reptiles and insects inhabiting the temperate zone by a possible migration of biological species from the subtropical zone towards the temperate zone because of the new environmental conditions. There are very few studies on snake bite envenoming in Bulgaria. The AIM of the study was to find the incidence of the acute accidental intoxication (AAI) caused by snake venom in adult individuals in a large region of Bulgaria between 2004 and 2012 and characterises it by number, type, main clinical features, course and socio-demographic parameters of the victims so that preventive measures can be taken, wherever necessary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied retrospectively all 68 cases of AAI caused by snake venom in adult individuals (> 18 years old) hospitalized in the Clinic of Toxicology in St. George University Hospital, Plovdiv over the period from 2004 to 2012 by 23 quantitative and qualitative parameters. RESULTS: We found that the average annual incidence of snake venom AAI in adult population in the region of Plovdiv was relatively low for the specified period (9.5 per 100000 residents); the snake venom AAI increases or decreases every other year, with no clearly delineated trend for now. The prevalence of envenomation by poisons of biological origin increased from 2.3% in 1990-1998 to 9.5-10.33% between 2007 and 2012. The main sociodemographic characteristics of snake bite victims are similar to those in other Balkan and Central European countries. The clinical response to poisons of biological origin is generally identical with the response to the viper (Vipera ammodytes) - mild to medium intensity with predominantly local toxic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm of Clinical Pathway 293 (CP) is effective and conducive to the reduction of duration of the morbid condition. There are, however, still aspects of it that can be optimised


OBJECTIVE: To study the relative share of asymptomatic forms of Hepatitis A in family reservoirs of infection with different hygienic conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Asymptomatic forms were identifi ed by detecting anti-HAV IgM using ELISA. Two types of households: with poor hygiene and with good hygiene, were studied. The study was designed as case-control. A group of Hepatitis A contact children attending day nurseries and kindergartens was also included in the study.

RESULTS: The relative share of asymptomatic forms of HAV infection in poor hygiene households was 58.62%, while in those with good hygiene it was 41.57%. The comparison using Fisher’s exact test yielded OR = 1.99 and 95% CI (P < 0.05). Asymptomatic forms were found in 7.75% of the investigated contacts among children attending day nurseries and kindergartens.

CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic forms of hepatitis A are very common which makes them epidemiologically quite signifi cant as many of the cases remain unrecognized and later become focal points of new cases of the disease. Poor hygiene conditions are likely to cause more asymptomatic forms. The high relative share of asymptomatic forms found in the households supports the need for immunoprophylaxis of the contacts.


Leaf samples of different flue-cured Virginia tobacco varieties were analyzed and compared to a standard, the typical American Virginia cultivar K 326. Plants were grown in the Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, under conditions appropriate for Virginia varieties. The tobaccos were characterized by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of polyphenols and capillary gas chromatography (CGC) of the neutral volatiles of essential oils, as well as by a sensory evaluation of color and aroma. All cultivars examined contained twelve polyphenol components in their HPLC profiles and differed only in quantitative aspects. Both qualitative and quantitative variations between the CGC profiles of essential oils of the cultivars were observed. The chromatographic profiles of polyphenols and essential oils were compared by the pattern recognition method (PRM) and used for calculating the similarity indexes (Is,%) of the samples to the standard Virginia variety K 326. The chemometric data obtained are completely compatible with sensory evaluation of color and aroma. Based on the results obtained the tobaccos may be distinguished as: typical full-flavored Virginia - aromatic (Virginia 330); typical full-flavored Virginia - less aromatic (Virginia 0454); non-typical (filler type) Virginia (Virginia 42). The possibilities of the PRM for objective evaluation of color and aroma of Virginia tobaccos were demonstrated.

References 1. Vapzarov I. About a small epidemic of Fievre boutonneuse in Plovdiv region, Bulgaria. Zdravno delo 1948;1:21-9 (Bulgarian). 2. Serbesov V, Alexandrov E. Active infl uencing of the epidemiological process of Marseille fever in Bulgaria. J Hig Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1973;17:445-52. 3. Popivanova N, Baltadzhiev I, Zaprianov Z. Mediterranean spotted fever in the Plovdiv region of Bulgaria. In: Alexandrov E, Kazar J, Hechemy K, Kantardjiev T, editors. Contemporary state of the rickettsioses in the world and in Bulgaria. Sofi a: Prof. Marin Drinov

-ecological conditions of Plovdiv region. Plant Sci 6: 509-513. Lingorski V, Kertikov T (2006): Suitability of annual winter cereal and legume crops and mixtures for green forage production under the conditions of Central Balkan Mountains. Journal of Mountain Agriculture on the Balkans 6: 1041-1055. Miller PR, Lighthiser EJ, Jones A, Holmes JA, Rick TL, Wraith JM (2011): Pea green manure management affects organic winter wheat yield and quality in semiarid Montana. Can J Plant Sci 91: 497-508. Orak A (2000): An investigation on yield and yield components of some common vetch (V

References Asănică A., Gille E., 2007. Some biochemical compounds involved in the cherry grafting compatibility, Romanian Biological Sciences, Vol V. nr. 1-2, ISSN 1584-0158, INSB București, 3-4. Asănică A., Manole C., Tudor V., Dobre A., Teodorescu R.I., 2016, Lycium barbarum L. juice - natural source of biologically active compounds. AgroLife Scientific Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, ISSN 2285- 5718, 15-20. Dzhugalov H., Lichev V., Yordanov A., Kaymakanov P., Dimitrova V., Kutoranov G., 2015. First results of testing goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) in Plovdiv

References 1. Vapzarov I. About a small epidemic of Fievre boutonneuse in Plovdiv region, Bulgaria. Zdravno delo 1948;1:21-9 (Bulgarian). 2. Serbesov V, Alexandrov E. Active influencing of the epidemiological process of Marseille fever in Bulgaria. J Hig Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1973; 17:445-52. 3. Rovery C, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Questions on Mediterranean spotted fever a century after its discovery. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14:1360-7. 4. Mansueto S, Tringali G, Di Leo R, Maniscalco M, Montenegro MR, Walker DH. Demonstration of spotted fever group rickettsiae in

and non-European Mediterranean countries: review and consensus statement on hepatitis A and B vaccination. J Travel Med 2007;14(3):181-7. 9. Todorova TT, Tsankova G, Lodozova N. Hepatitis B infection in eastern regions of Bulgaria. J IMAB - Annu Proceeding 2016;22(1):1033-5. 10. Tiribelli C, Bellentani S, Campello C. Editorial: The north-to-south gradient of hepatitis C virus infection. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003;38(8):805-6. 11. Stoycheva M, Vatev N, Petrov A, et al. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A in Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, 2005-2008. World J Vaccines 2011