Trends and Causes of Congenital Anomalies in the Pleven Region, Bulgaria
We describe the secular trend, pattern and causes of congenital anomalies (CAs) in the Pleven region, Bulgaria. The source of the data was the regional population-based registry of CAs using criteria according to EUROCAT recommendations. During the period 1988-2006, 47,622 births were surveyed. A total of 1,225 cases of CAs were ascertained, giving a total prevalence of 25.72 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 24.3 to 27.15 per 1,000 births. There was a significant increase in total prevalence from 17.76 per 1,000 births in 1988 to 29.40 in 2006 (χ2 test for trend = 5.03; p = 0.025). Congenital heart disease (4.3 per 1,000 registered births), nervous system anomalies (3.3 per 1,000 births), limb defects (2.5 per 1,000 births) and neural tube defects (2.0 per 1,000 births) demonstrated the highest prevalence. There was a significant upward trend in the prevalence of some specific anomalies: digestive system, tumors, gastroschisis and non syndromal dysmorphologic conditions. Genetic causes were identified in approximately 62% of all cases with CAs (chromosomal 8%, single gene defects 14%, multifactorial 40%). The secular trend and particular pattern of CAs in the Pleven region require some potential underlying contributing factors to be considered: case ascertainment and diagnostic methods, and some environmental factors. These data draw attention to the need of further regional epidemiological studies. The high proportion of genetic causes emphasize the role of genetic services as an integral part of preventive medical care.
The species composition and number of visitations of food plants by bees were studied in refuge sites in agricultural landscapes and in selected crops. The habitat fragments of interest are characterised in terms of pollinator diversity at genus level and the use of food plants by individual genera. Trophic and temporal niche overlap is described for individual genera and the honey bee Apis mellifera in different habitat types. Factors influencing the manner of use of individual plant species by pollinating insects are identified
Wild bees (Apiformes) were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and radish (Raphanus sativus). Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.
Georgi N. Nikolov, Milena D. Karcheva, Chavdar A. Tsvetkov, Alexandar V. Valkov, , Tihomir R. Rashev and Alexandar B. Blazhev
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is well documented that high-risk (HR)-HPVtypes are etiologically associated with some cancers. The aim of the study was to investigate HPV16-DNApositivity and prevalence of Ig Gantibody against HPV16 in patients with laryngeal carcinoma and precancerous lesions of cervix uteri in Pleven region, Bulgaria. Material/Methods: We performedacross-sectional study and investigated clinical materials. Attached is real-time PCR-analysis for detection of HPV16-DNA. HPVspecific antibody response by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for detection and quantification of specific Ig Gantibodies in serum were used. Results: For the six-month period, 30 samples were collected and tested. Fourteen of them were found in patients with carcinoma of the larynx and sixteen - in patients with various lesions of cervix uteri.We found that six patients (42.8%) in the first group and eight patients (50%) in the second group were HPV16-DNA-positive. Different age groups were affected. The sera analyzed in this study showed that seven patients (50%) with carcinoma of the larynx were seropositive of whom four (57%) were males. Fourteen of the females with dysplasia (88%) were seropositive. Matching DNApositivity and antibody response were found in 29%of the patients with laryngeal cancer. The match was found in 50%of the females with cervical dysplasia. Conclusions: Real-time PCRisarapid, cost-effective method for detection of HPVs.Ahigh level of seropositivity was found in the two groups of patients.
D Nikolic, S Cvjeticanin, I Petronic, R Brdar, D Cirovic, M Bizic, Z Milincic and R Karan
, pathogenesis and prevention of neural tube defects. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2006; 46(2): 55-67.
Petrova JG, Vaktskjold A. The incidence of neural tube defects in Norway and the Arkhangelskaja Oblast in Russia and the association with maternal age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009; 88(6): 667-672.
Kovacheva K, Simeonova M, Velkova A. Trends and causes of congenital anomalies in the Plevenregion, Bulgaria. Balkan J Med Genet. 2009; 12(1): 37-43.
Mitchell LE, Adzick NS, Melchionne J, Pasquariello PS
development phases (June). The insect number/100 sweepings during the vegetation period of 2012 reached 479.0 in L . albus and 192.0 in L . luteus . The insect number decreased to 13.4% and 41.3% in L . albus and to 9.4% and 49.0% in L . luteus during the vegetation periods in 2013 and 2014, respectively.
Meteorological characteristics in the Plevenregion
Relative humidity, %