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Stable External Relations. In Zgenh, Y. and Liang, F. K., eds. East Asia: Developments and Challenges. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. Chen, I-hsin E., 2013. Taiwan’s Perspective of the U.S. Pivot to Asia Policy. The National Strategy Forum Review, 22(2): 1-5. Clinton, H., 2011. America’s Pacific Century. Foreign Affairs, 11 November. Available at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/10/11/americas_pacific_century?wp_login_redirect=0 [accessed 17 November 2011]. Cooper, J. F., 2011. Why We Need Taiwan. The National Interests, 29 August, Available at http

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the relationship between Singapore and the People’s Republic of China in the light of the current policy of the President of the United States Donald Trump. The point of reference for the presented analysis is the foreign policy of the former President Barack Obama, based on the strategy known as “pivot to Asia” – the strategic turnabout of the United States to the Asia-Pacific region. One of its main objectives was the signing of a multilateral agreement on the establishment of a free trade zone, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), bringing together 12 countries. The main subject of the present analysis is to examine the impact of Donald Trump’s decision of January 2017 to withdraw from the TPP trade agreement on the relations between the remaining signatories of the agreement, as well as to examine Beijing’s actions, which may seek to increase its sphere of influence in Asia through the breakdown of TPP. The main part of the research is focused on the triangle politics concept in international politics, which will include China, Singapore and the United States. Besides the two largest economic powers, Singapore is included because of its membership in the TPP and ASEAN, and due to its strong economy and its population (predominantly) of Chinese origin it can be viewed as the “fifth column” or may otherwise play a role in the Greater China concept.

. 33–44. Ośrodek Spraw Azjatyckich Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, Raport: Chiny wobec Ukrainy, Białorusi i Rosji – Listopad 2017. Web. 16 Jan. 2018, http://osa.uni.lodz.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Chiny_wobec_UBR_listopad_2017.pdf . Parker, J.A., Anderson, D.A. The Reality of the So-Called Pivot to Asia. Arthur D. Simons Center for Interagency Cooperation, pp. 11–12. http://thesimonscenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/IAJ-7–1-Spring2016–5–13.pdf . Permanent Mission of the People’s Republic of China to the UN . Position Paper of the People’s Republic of China at

Abstract

The rise of China has aroused heated debates on whether the country would become the “revisionist” power in challenging the supreme position of the “status quo” power, the United States. This paper aims to examine whether the rise of China would, firstly, empower Beijing to solve the long-term crisis in the Korean Peninsula, and secondly, complicates the picture in solving the difficult historical and political issues in Sino-Japanese relations. It is argued that the increasing economic and military capabilities of China are not instrumental in fostering significant changes within North Korea and in monitoring the external behavior of its leaders. A more nationalistic China which lacks soft power also hinders a favorable solution to the challenges of Sino-Japanese relations.

55 Sigita Trainauskienė * Kaunas University of Technology Transatlantic Relations and Lithuania: Unfinished Issues of Security The present article deals with the problem, often discussed in the public sphere, of the decreased at- tention that the USA gives to Lithuania and to the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on the whole, discusses the changing international environment, USA’s “pivot to Asia” and possible changes in the US foreign policy during the time of President Obama’s second term of office. The article states that Lithuania, being

Abstract

Vietnam tries to respond to changing international situations, while attempting to stay in accordance with its own ambitions. China and the USA, the two superpowers, are the most important partners of Vietnamese strategy, which is determined by these two countries. The most important economic partner and ideological ally is China. But both sides have some serious problems to resolve such as maritime disputes. The situation imposes the need to seek counterbalance, a reliable ally who provides protection for its own interests. So Vietnam looks to balance improved relations with China while seeking deeper and multidimensional relations with the USA. The United States offers many advantages that are attractive to Vietnam. Inevitably, economic ties and new projects e.g. TPP, political, cultural and scientific cooperation make up these advantages. However, the United States can only provide support for the Spratly and Paracel Islands’ dispute and improving cooperative measures in the South China Sea with the presence of U.S. naval vessels and dialogue that assists Vietnam defense. Vietnam has again become an element in the American strategy of pivoting to Asia.

Myanmar. Canberra: Australian National University. 87-101 pp. Mirdha, R. (2012). Regional trade: Moving Towards Change. Forum, Vol. 6, Issue 9, September. The Daily Star. Muni, S. D. (2012) Obama Administration’s Pivot to Asia-Pacific and India’s Role. ISAS Working Paper, No. 159, 29 August. Rashid, Barrister H. (2012). Obama’s symbolic visit to Myanmar. The Daily Star. 17 November. Richter, P. and Magnier, M. (2011). Hillary Clinton’s Myanmar trip marks significant shift in policy. The Los Angeles Times, 30 November. Selth, A. (2012). United States relations with Burma

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in Asia: From a Diplomatic to a Strategic Constrainment of an Emergent China?” elaborates on the shift of the US foreign policy and role of the “Pivot to Asia” for regional order. The author gives recommendation for the U.S. policy toward ASEAN’s countries and claims that Washington should cooperate with Southeast Asian states to rebalance power in the region, exert pressure on China and persuade Beijing to implement solution based on international law. This paper provides detailed knowledge of a nature of the South China Sea dispute, presenting possible

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with Washington. The second thematic block tackles relations between the US and three selected countries in the Asia–Pacific: Japan, North Korea and Australia. Karol Żakowski describes the process of adaptation of Japan’s foreign policy to new international conditions after Donald Trump’s election as US president. He concludes that while US withdrawal from “Pivot to Asia” and TPP initiatives was detrimental to To- kyo’s diplomatic line, Prime Minister Abe Shinzō tried to exploit, though without 7 Introduction great success, Trump’s assertive posture against

panels undertaking various dimensions of East Asian con- troversies: economic – One Belt One Road Initiative, regionalization in East Asia, economy and business in Asian context, successes and failures of Chinese economy; security – dynamics of the U.S. “Pivot to Asia” strategy, geopolitical competition in Asia; social – Chinese culture and identity as well as political problems of law and democracy in East Asia, China’s international relation theory and foreign pol- icy. Power shift in East Asia and the prospect for developing Asian-European Ties was the main