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References Antonov, A. & Atanasova, D. (2002): Nest-site selection in the Magpie Pica pica in a high-density urban population of Sofia (Bulgaria). - Acta Ornithologica 37: 55-66. Baeyens, G. (1979): Description of the social behaviour of the Magpie ( Pica Pica ). - Ardea 67: 28-41. Baeyens, G. (1981a): The role of the sexes in territory defence in the Magpie ( Pica Pica ). - Ardea 69: 69-82. Baeyens, G. (1981b): Magpie breeding success and Carrion Crow interference. - Ardea 69: 125-139. Baeyens, G. & Jerzak, J. (1997): Magpie Pica pica . pp. 672-673 In

, Warszawa. Nowicki W. (2001): Ptaki śródmieścia Warszawy. MiIZ PAN, Warszawa. Okólska H. & Burak M. (2007): Cmentarze dawnego Wrocławia. Muzeum Architektury we Wrocławiu, Wrocław. Orłowski G., Martini K. & Martini M. (2002): Liczebność i rozmieszczenie sroki Pica pica w południowo- zachodniej części Wrocławia. - Ptaki Śląska, 14: 143-154. - (2004): Rozmieszczenie i liczebność pleszki Phoenicurus phoenicurus w południowo-zachodniej części Wrocławia. - Chr. Przyr. ojcz. 60(5): 17-30. - (2006): Awifauna południowo-zachodniej części Wrocławia. - Ptaki Śląska 16: 17


Breeding bird community in a densely built-up area (mainly block buildings with abundant trees and shrubs) in the city of Wroclaw (96.8 ha) were compared between the year 1996 and 2009. In 2009, 25 breeding species were recorded. Columba livia and Passer domesticus were eudominants comprising together 60.2% of the bird community, while Apus apus and Passer montanus were dominants (together 11.1%). The most common were granivores (66.8%; 4 species) and insectivores (19.0%, 14 species). In comparison with 1996, the following species have increased in numbers by the year 2009: Columba palumbus, Pica pica, Corvus cornix, Parus caeruleus, Passer montanus, Carduelis chloris, Sylvia atricapilla, Falco tinnunculus and Turdus pilaris; while Corvus monedula, Phoenicurus ochruros, Turdus merula, Fringilla coelebs, Muscicapa striata, Hippolais icterina and Streptopelia decaocto have decreased.


Parasitic helminths were the probable cause of death of 41 passeriform birds (29 adults and 12 juveniles in their first year of life) caught in the net during the spring and autumn ringing (1986–2010). The birds (1 Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, 1 House Martin Delichon urbica, 2 Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, 9 Great Tit Parus major, 3 Willow Tit Poecile palustris, 1 Great Reed Acrocephalus arundinaceus, 1 Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita, 3 Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, 2 Dunnock Prunella modularis, 1 Magpie Pica pica, 5 Robin Erithacus rubecula, 9 Common Blackbird Turdus merula and 3 Song Thrush T. philomelos) were caught in the environs of Přerov (Czech Republic). The helminths: trematodes, tapeworms, nematodes and hook worms, were located in the intestine, glandular and muscular stomach, cloaca, rectum, gall bladder, liver, pulmonary cavity, air sac, nasal and orbital cavity and subcutaneous tissue of the hosts. The intensity of invasion with different species of parasites was up to 734 per host. Some parasites Brachydistomum ventricosum, Mosesia sittae, Aprocta cylindrica, Diplotriaena tridens were acquired at the wintering grounds. All the helmniths were heteroxenous, with development cycle involving intermediate hosts (invertebrates) which are part of the birds’ diet.


In the period between the years 1976 to 2016 we monitored the nesting site distribution of two populations of saker falcon (Falco cherrug) concentrated in the highlands and adjacent lowlands of western and eastern Slovakia. In western Slovakia we recorded nesting by 56 pairs and 514 nestings, and in eastern Slovakia we observed nesting by 32 pairs and 245 nestings. There were similar nesting success rates in both regions, with pairs producing on average 3.2 young in every successful nest. During the monitored period as a whole a total of 1,788 young saker falcons were raised. At the same time all the pairs gradually resettled in the lowlands, and in the new environment the nesting success rate significantly improved (81.1% compared with 57.1 % in the highlands). This change of nesting biotopes was caused by the impacts of intensive exploitation and environmentally inappropriate forest management, with the accompanying excessive disturbance of nesting birds, but at the same time the disappearance of ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) colonies led to a change in the food spectrum for the observed saker falcon pairs. We evaluated the falcons’ feeding habits in western Slovakia between the years 1977 and 2016 (49 pairs; 1–17 pairs/year) and in eastern Slovakia between 2009 and 2016 (12 pairs; 1–3 pairs/year). Altogether 17,669 prey items were identified. From 1976 onwards mammals (Mammalia, 19.8%, 24 species) became gradually less represented as a component in the falcons’ diet compared with birds (Aves, 79.9%, 58 species). In areas of western Slovakia we found stable and predominant proportions of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) ranging from 52% to 62%. The proportion of pigeons was distinctly lower in eastern Slovakia (31.5%), compensated for by larger shares of common vole (Microtus arvalis), common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) and hooded crow (Corvus cornix). The common starling (9.5%) was a significant prey species in the lowlands of western and eastern Slovakia alike. Mammals were mostly represented by common voles (9.8%), European hamsters (Cricetus cricetus, 5.3%), ground squirrels (2.1%) and hares (Lepus europaeus, 1.6%). Changes over time in the composition of falcons’ prey were also evaluated over five periods in western Slovakia.

conversion nestling trait to age. Karhu S. 1973. On the development stages of chicks and adult Moorhens Gallinula chloropus at the end of a breeding season. Ornis Fenn. 50: 1-17. O'Connor R.J. 1978. Growth strategies in nesting Passerines. Living Bird 16: 209-238. Svensson L. 1992. Identification Guide to European Passerines. Stockholm: pp. 1-368. Tiainen J. 1978. Nestlings growth in three Phylloscopus warblers in Finland. Ornis Fenn. 55: 1-15. Törmälä T., Kovanen J. 1979. Growth and ageing of magpie (Pica pica (L.)) nestlings

feeding activity of the Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) in Veľká Fatra Mts]. Tichodroma 8: 48-60. [In Slovak with English summary]. Kaňuščák P 1988: Príspevok k synantropizácii straky obyčajnej ( Pica pica L.) v mestskej aglomerácii Piešťan a okolia [Contribution to the synanthropization of the European Magpie ( Pica pica L.) in agglomeration of Piešťany and its surroudings]. Vlastivedný spravodajca okresu Trnava 1988: 199-205. [In Slovak with German summary]. Kečkéšová L & Noga M 2008: The diet of the Common Kestrel in the urban environment of the city of Nitra

.M.: Mortality associated with avian reovirus infection in a free-living magpie (Pica pica) in Great Britain. BMC Vet Res 2015, 11, 20, doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0329-5. 11. Liu H.J., Lee L.H., Hsu H.W., Kuo L.C., Liao M.H.: Molecular evolution of avian reovirus: evidence for genetic diversity and reassortment of the S-class genome segments and multiple cocirculating lineages. Virology 2003, 314, 336-349. 12. Liu Q., Zhang G., Huang Y., Ren G., Chen L., Gao J., Zhang D., Han B., Su W., Zhao J., Hu X., Su J.: Isolation and characterization of a reovirus causing spleen necrosis

. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla). Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryolology 2005; 110: 55-63. 5. Erdogan S, Alan A. Gross anatomical and scanning electron microscopic studies of the oropharyngeal cavity in the European magpie (Pica pica) and the common raven (Corvus corax). Microscopy Reseach and Technique 2012; 75: 379-387. 6. Erdogan S, Perez W. Anatomical and scanning electron microscopic studies of the tongue and lingual papillae in the chital deer (Axis axis, Erxleben

-280. Jones G. 1987b. Time and energy constraints during incubation in free living swallows (Hirundo rustica); an experimental study using precision electronic balances. J. Anim,. Ecol. 56: 229-245. Kavanagh B. 1988. Discriminating the sex of Magpies Pica pica from morphological data. Ring. & Migr. 9: 83-90. Kelsey M. G., Backhurst G. C., Pearson D. J. 1989. Age differences in the timing and biometrics of migrating Marsch Warblers in Kenya. Ring. & Migr. 10: 41-47. Kondracki J. 1994. Geografia polski. Mezoregiony fizyczno-geograficzne. PWN, Warszawa, pp. 150