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graphs of doubly partial orders, Appl. Math. Lett. 24 (2011) 811-816. doi:10.1016/j.aml.2010.12.009 [15] B. Park and Y. Sano, On the hypercompetition numbers of hypergraphs, Ars Combin. 100 (2011) 151-159. [16] F.S. Roberts, Competition graphs and phylogeny graphs, in: Graph Theory and Combinatorial Biology, L. Lovasz (Ed.), Bolyai Mathematical Studies, 7, (János Bolyai Mathematical Society, Budapest, 1999) 333-362. [17] F.S. Roberts and L. Sheng, Phylogeny graphs of arbitrary digraphs, Mathematical Hierarchies and Biology (Piscataway, NJ, 1996) DIMACS Ser. Discrete

of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) and the influence of hybridization: mitochondrial and microsatellite data. – Molecular Ecology 16: 1497–1517. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03245.x Prum, R. O., Berv, J. S., Domburg, A., Field, D. J., Townsend, J. P., Lemmon, E. M. & Lemmon, A. R. 2015. A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. – Nature 526: 568–573. DOI: 10.1038/nature15697 Rockenbauch, D. 1998. Der Wanderfalke in Deutschland und umliegenden Gebieten [Peregrine Falcons in Germany and neighboring countries]. Bd 1

References Arnaiz-Villena, A., Alvarez-Tejado, M., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Garcia-de-la-Torre, C., Varela, P., Recio, M. J., Ferre, S. & Martinez-Laso, J. 1998. Phylogeny and rapid Northern and Southern Hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs. – Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54: 1031–1041. DOI: 10.1007/s000180050230 Arnaiz-Villena, A., Guillen, J., Ruiz-del-Valle, V., Lowy, E., Zamora, J., Varela, P., Stefani, D. & Allende, L. M. 2001. Phylogeography of crossbills, bullfinches, grosbeaks, and rosefinches. – Cellular and

, B.F., 1957: Verbal behaviour . Acton, MA: Copley Publishing Group. [7] Jakobson, R., 1941. Kindersprache, aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze . Uppsala: Linguistic Society of America. (Translated by Allan, R.K., Child language, aphasia, and phonologica universals . The Hague: Mouton, 1968.) [8] Yang, Ch., 2013. Ontogeny and phylogeny of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(16), 6324–6327. [9] Studdert-Kennedy, M., 1990. Language development from an evolutionary perspective. Haskins Laboratories Status


The theory of filembriogenesis is only an introduction to the problem’s development of ontogeny’ and phylogeny’ relation (hereinafter — «relation»). Discussions as to whether ontogeny creates phylogeny, or vice versa, are devoid of meaning. The opinion of O. Hertwig (Hertwig, 1906) that the ontogeny and phylogeny are two parallel and independent developmental processes is valid only in the first part; thesis about independence distorts the essence of «relation.» According to the authors, one of the essential characteristics of the «relation» is that ontogeny gives the material for phylogeny, and phylogeny renews ontogeny, leading away ontogeny from inbreeding; that ontogeny ensures the life continuity and phylogeny — its differentiation, that is, creates biodiversity; that ontogeny and phylogeny can exist and function only in conjunction or in parallel, changing places (in terms of priority) in the life evolution.

phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae) – J. Evol. Biol. 16: 17-36. Hrbek T., Keivany Y., Coad B.W. 2006 – New species of Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from Isfahan Province of Iran and a reanalysis of other Iranian species – Copeia 2: 244-255. Hollander R.R. 1986 – Microanalysis of scales of poeciliid fishes – Copeia 1: 86-91. Hughes D.R. 1981 – Development and organization of the posterior field of ctenoid scales in the Platycephalidae – Copeia 1981: 596-606. Ibańez A.L., Gutiérrez-Benítez O. 2004 – Climatie variables and


Introduction: There is still lack of morphological and phylogenetic information on the pathogenic nematode of the camel Haemonchus longistipes. In the present study, this parasite was isolated in Saudi Arabia and described.

Material and Methods: The abomasa of two Arabian camels were collected from a slaughterhouse in Abha province and examined for nematode infection. Worms were described morphologically and morphometrically by electron microscopy. Multiple sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree of the parasite were constructed from maximum likelihood analysis of its ITS-2 rDNA sequences.

Results: These nematodes had a slender body terminating anteriorly at a conspicuous dorsal lancet. A pair of lateral cervical papillae distant from the anterior end was observed. The buccal aperture was hexagonal and surrounded by two amphids, six externo-labial papillae, and four cephalic papillae. Males terminated posteriorly at a bursa supported by spicules and lateral and dorsal rays. Females were linguiform and knobbed morphotypes with distinct ovijectors and a dorsal rim covering the anal pore. The taxonomy was confirmed by the morphology and number of the longitudinal cuticular ridges in a 43–46 range. The sequence alignment and phylogeny revealed 92% homology with H. longistipes (AJ577461.1), and the sequence was deposited into GenBank.

Conclusion: The present study describes H. longistipes morphologically and molecularly which facilitates further discrimination of this species worldwide.

References Albach, D. C. & Chase, M. W. 2004: Incongruence in Veroniceae (Plantaginaceae): evidence from two plastid and a nuclear ribosomal DNA region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 183–197. Albach, D., Meudt, H. & Oxelman. B. 2005: Piecing together the “new” Plantaginaceae. American Journal of Botany 92: 297–315. Álvarez, I. &Wendel, J. F. 2003: Ribosomal ITS sequences and plant phylogenetic inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 417–434. Attar, F., Riahi, M., Daemi, F. & Aghabeigi, F. 2011: Preliminary molecular phylogeny of Eurasian

Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Nedjalkov, V. P. 1969. Nekotorye verojatnostnye universalii v glagol’nom slovoobrazovanii. In Vardul’, F. (ed.), Jazykovye universalii i lingvističeskaja tipologija, 106-114. Moscow: Nauka. Nichols, Johanna. 1982. Ingush transitivization and detransitivization. BLS 8. 445-462. Nichols, Johanna. 2009. Expanding character sets for phylogeny: A Slavic test case. In Evans, Bethwyn (ed.), Discovering History through Language: Papers in Honor of Malcolm Ross, 127-151. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Nichols, Johanna. 2014


We describe the new species Gomphonemopsis sieminskae from brackish waters of the East China Sea littoral near Ningbo, China. Two diatom strains isolated from Ulva sp. were successfully grown, then analyzed by light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. The new species is compared to known Gomphonemopsis species, and similarities to G. pseudoexigua and G. obscurum are emphasized. Although the size metric data overlap and the external views are fairly similar, the two taxa differ in their valve interior. Molecular barcoding strongly discriminated G. sieminskae from G. cf. exigua, while rbcL gene-based phylogeny showed G. sieminskae to be sister to Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In this respect our results confirm the recent discovery, based on molecular data, that Gomphonemopsis is a close-relative taxon to Phaeodactylum, and place it in Phaeodactylaceae instead of Rhoicospheniaceae as inferred solely from morphology.