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To assess the soil quality of Phaeozems and Luvisols from Kujawy region (Kujawy-Pomerania Province, Poland), the soil quality indicators such as: content of organic matter and nutrients, as well as bulk density were used. The soils showed similar inherent properties (soil texture, depth to parent material, type of clay) and management practices (tillage, crop rotation, nutrient application). The following properties were determined: bulk density, grain size composition, exchangeable acidity, concentration of available forms of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (Nt). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) were measured in the solution obtained after extraction with 0.004 M CaCl2. The stock of TOCs, Nts and DOCs, and DNs were calculated. The total organic carbon content in surface horizon of Phaeozems was significant higher (13.9-20.1 g·kg-1) than in Ap horizon of Luvisols (8.3-11.0 g·kg-1), which is a consequence of their origin. The stock of organic carbon in Ap horizon fell within 5.89 to 8.49 kg·m2 in Phaeozems and 3.80 to 4.81 kg·m2 in Luvisols. Although Phaeozems demonstrated a significant higher content of TOC, as compared with Luvisols, the amount of dissolved organic carbon was similar in both soil types, which points to a higher share of DOC in the total organic carbon content in Luvisols (up to 17.5% in Et horizon). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen and their stock do not depend on the type of soils if the management practices are similar.

wavelengths. This paper provides information on two soils in natural structure and under anthropogenic influence, characterizes the two soils chemically and microbiologically, evaluates the content in humic precursors and the quality of the two Phaeozems. Material and Methods Soils characterization The soils are of Phaeozems type, in WRB Calcaric Phaeozems and Verti-stagnic Phaeozems, belong to habitat 6210 from the site included in European network of protected areas Nature 2000 SCI Sighişoara-Târnava Mare, Mureș county, Romania. Calcaric Phaeozems, from Saschiz, GPS


The soil cover of the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the East European Plain is characterized by diverse soil combinations revealed during large-scale and detailed soil mapping against the background of a traditional zonal sequence of dominant automorphic soils alternating from the north to the south and clearly displayed on small-scale soil maps. The composition, configuration and functioning of particular soil cover patterns are determined by the soil forming factors acting within a given area. The elementary soil areas (detailed scale) and elementary soil cover patterns maps (large scale) of the Central Russian, Kalach, and Volga Uplands are created by both traditional and digital soil mapping methods. Low-contrasting soil combinations with the background Haplic Chernozems (Loamic or Clayic, Pachic) alternating with zooturbated Haplic Chernozems (Loamic or Clayic, Pachic) on convex elements of the microtopography and Luvic Chernozems (Loamic or Clayic, Pachic) on concave elements of the microtopography prevails under conditions of thick clay loamy parent materials and free drainage. Under conditions of shallow embedding by low-permeable clayey sediments, the soil cover includes Chernozems or Chernic Phaeozems with stagnic features in some part of the soil profile or even Mollic Stagnosols. The presence of shrink-swell clays of different ages leads to the formation of Bathyvertic Chernozems, Vertic Chernozems, Vertic Chernic Phaeozems and/or Pellic Vertisols. The presence of soluble salts in the parent material leads to the development of solonetzic soil complexes consisting of Protosodic or Sodic Chernozems and different types of Solonetzes.


Chernozemic soils are distinguished based on the presence of thick, black or very dark, rich in humus, well-structural and base-saturated topsoil horizon, and the accumulation of secondary carbonates within soil profile. In Central Europe these soils occur in variable forms, respectively to climate gradients, position in the landscape, moisture regime, land use, and erosion/accumulation intensity. “Typical” chernozems, correlated with Calcic or Haplic Chernozems, are similarly positioned at basic classification level in the national soil classifications in Poland, Slovakia and Hungary, and in WRB. Chernozemic soils at various stages of their transformation are placed in Chernozems, Phaeozems or Kastanozems, supplied with respective qualifiers, e.g. Cambic, Luvic, Salic/Protosalic, Sodic/Protosodic etc. Some primeval Chernozems thinned by erosion may still fulfil criteria of Chernozems, but commonly are shifted to Calcisols. Soils upbuilt (aggraded) with colluvial additions may also retain their original placement in Chernozems, getting supplementary qualifier Colluvic. “Hydromorphic” chernozemic soils, in many CE systems are placed as separate soil type (“czarne ziemie” or “čiernice”) at the same level with “typical” chernozems. Classification of these soils in WRB depends on the presence of chernic horizon, depth of secondary carbonate accumulation and depth of gleyic/stagnic properties, and may vary from Gleyic/Stagnic Chernozems/Phaeozems to Mollic Gleysols/Stagnosols. Although WRB classification differs from national classifications in the concepts and priorities of classification, it provides large opportunity to reflect the spatial variability and various stages of transformation/degradation of chernozemic soils in Central Europe.


Vertisols are characterized by high content of clay fraction that affects their specific morphological and physical features. The shrink-swell phenomena of clayey materials under specific moisture regime cause formation of cracks, wedge-shaped structural aggregates and slickensides on aggregate surfaces. It was formerly believed that these soils can be found only in tropical/subtropical zones, thus Vertisols have not been expected to form under temperate climate of Central Europe. As a result, Vertisols are insufficiently recognized and documented on soil maps in Poland, including the Lower Silesia region. The aim of this study was to examine soils developed on clayey parent materials near Strzelin, focusing on their morphology, properties and classification issues. There was confirmed that soils developed from Neogene clays have vertic and mollic horizon, accompanied by stagnic or gleyic properties. However, not all soils fulfil the criteria for Vertisols due to the presence of surface or subsurface coarser-textured (sandyor silty-textured) layers. Native differentiation of parent material and geomorphological processes were found the main factors, which control the spatial mosaic of Vertisols and black earths (Chernozems or Phaeozems).


The purpose of the work was to characterize the variously used humus in the south-eastern part of the Lublin region. The basic research material were data taken from the literature on the subject. Standard soil science methods were used in the study. The humus level of humus varieties ranged from 30 to 80 cm. The researched molds were formed from loess deposits, which most often showed graining of clay dust. Organic carbon content in humus levels did not exceed 2.9%. The surface levels of the analyzed molds showed clear decalcification. The CaCO3 content in the loess mother rock was a maximum of 15.5%. These are soils with high saturation of the sorption complex with basic cations. The content of available phosphorus and potassium in humus levels was low and medium. According to Systematics of Poland’s soils (2019), the analyzed molds mainly represented leached molds and typical molds, while according to the international soil classification WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) they are primarily Phaeozems. All the analyzed humus plants belong to soils with the highest utility value. Phenomena lowering the quality of molds in the Lublin region related to human activity are the use of improper agrotechnics, and above all water surface erosion. The unfavorable processes are favored by the undulating terrain and the grain size of the soils studied, characteristic for this area.

Związki Próchniczne Czarnych Ziem Leśnych w Parku Krajobrazowym "Dolina Baryczy"

. Distribution of Chernozems and Phaeozems in Central Germany during the Neolithic period. Quaternary International 511: 166–184. Systematyka gleb Polski, 1974. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 25(1): 1–148. Systematyka gleb Polski, 1989. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 40(3/4): 1–150. Systematyka gleb Polski, 2011. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 62(3): 1–193. Systematyka gleb Polski, 2019. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu, Polskie Towarzystwo Gleboznawcze, Wrocław-Warszawa: 292 pp. Turski R., 1985. Geneza i właściwości


Carbonate-rich soils are characterized by great diversity in content of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral substances in soil substrate which largely influences soil properties. The study presents the analysis results of four soil profiles located at the area of Pieniny National Park. The aim of this study was to characterize and classify the soils developed from the mixture of carbonate and carbonate-rich rock material, formerly classified as pararendzinas. It was achieved by determination of morphological, physical, and chemical properties, as well as mineralogical composition of selected carbonate-rich soils occurring in the Polish part of the Pieniny Mts. Soils were classified as typical chernozemic rendzina (P1), typical eutrophic brown soils (P2, P4), as well as typical pararendzina (P3) according to Polish Soil Classification (2011).

The parent material of studied soils P1, P2 and P4 were slope covers, with a dominant share of sandstone and minor share of limestone, whereas soil P3 was formed from variegated shale cut with multiple calcite veins. Soils were characterized by stable aggregate structure: crumby, angular blocky and subangular blocky. They were medium or strong skeletal, mostly with loam texture with great share of silt fraction. CaCO3 content in genetic horizons ranged from 0.0 to 703.0 g·kg-1. The reaction of studied soils was from weakly acidic to alkaline. Analysed soils were characterized by very high base saturation. Among determined exchangeable cations, Ca2+ ions had the biggest share in all analysed profile. High base saturation, as well as high content of calcium carbonate was accompanied by content of organic matter and percentage content of clay fraction. Taking into consideration determined chemical and physical properties, it can be found that investigated soils were influenced by not only the in-situ weathering material but also by rock material which have been transported and deposited as a result of slope processes. Furthermore, the lack or lower content of CaCO3 in surface and middle part of analysed soil profiles was most likely a result of the impoverishment of rock material during the transport on the slope.

Wysoczyzny Siedleckiej. Acta Agrophysica 18(2): 311–319. (in Polish with English abstract). Keesstra S.D., Bouma J., Wallinga J., Tittonell P., Smith P., Cerdà A., Bardgett R.D., 2016. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Soil 2(2): 111. Klasyfikacja gleb leśnych Polski (Classification of forest soils in Poland), 2000. CILP, Warszawa: 127 pp. Kobierski M., Kondratowicz-Maciejewska K., Kociniewska K., 2015. Soil quality assessment of Phaeozems and Luvisols from the Kujawy region (Central Poland