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Abbreviations ap = accentual phrase, dur = durative, ez = the ezafe particle, ip = intonational phrase, prs = present, pst = past, ptcp = participle, sg = singular, sm = specificity marker; the equal sign (=) in the examples marks an enclitic boundary; the plus sign (+) separates the two parts of a compound verb References Abolhasanizadeh, V., Gussenhoven, C., and Bijankhan, M. (2010). The position of clitics in Persian intonational structure. Speech Prosody 2010, 100108, 1-4. Retrieved from http://gep.ruhosting.nl/carlos/speech_prosody_2010_zadeh

: Improvisation in a Persian garden. Behzadfar, M, & Monam, A. (2011). The impact of sky view factor on outdoor thermal comfort. Armanshahr , 5 23–34. Benmanian, M.R, Taghvaei, A.A, Shahidi, M.SH. (2008). Evaluation of environmental and cultural foundations Garden physical elements of Iran (before and after Islam), Journal of Environment Science and Technology . NO.1, pp103-112. Benzinger, T.H. (1979). The physiological basis for thermal comfort, Indoor climate . Danish building research institute, Copenhagen. Pp.441-476. Blaxejczyk, K., Broede, P, Fiala, D, Havenith, G

References Alagaraja K. 1984 – Simple methods for estimation of parameters for assessing exploited fish stocks – Indian J. Fish. 31: 177-208. Babushkin N.Y., Borzenko M.P. 1951 – Sturgeon of the Caspian Sea – Pishchepromizdat, Moscow: 5-67 (in Russian) Bakhshalizadeh S., Bani A., Abdolmalaki S., Nahrevar R., Rastin R. 2011 – Age, growth, and mortality of the Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus , in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea – Caspian J. Env. Sci 9: 159-167. Berg L.S. 1934 – Acipenser gueldenstaedtii persicus , a sturgeon from the south Caspian Sea

Abstract

Data records since from 2008 to 2012 show the occurrence of the coral reef bleaching, an increase in population of jellyfish and a decreasing presence of some migratory marine mammals in the Persian Gulf has increased. Results of our biometric methods on jellyfish of the Persian Gulf (Aurelia aurata), show a significant increase in size during the last four years (p < 0.05). Our studies in the area showed that in the sampling areas in close proximity to superhot wastewater of industries cooled in terrestrial pools and then emptied into the sea, the abundance of the Aurelia aurata was significantly lower than in regions where superhot water was directly emptied into the seawater. This paper will review the effects of global warming, especially in the Persian Gulf.

Summary

The main aim of this study is to probe into major impediments in teaching literary criticism to the Persian speaking Iranian students of translation studies and to argue in which ways teaching literary criticism may be a successful undertaking in the educational establishments in globally less widely taught and learnt languages like Persian. For this purpose, following a mandatory literary criticism course, 35 male and 65 female graduate students from Fars and Isfahan universities were selected through convenience sampling and encouraged to fill in “record-of-work” forms, including reflection on learning strategies as well as their personal experiences and impressions. Next, to triangulate the results, fifty participants were selected to partake in semi-structured interviews, and findings were sorted and content analyzed based on Oxford’s (1990) dimensions of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and the tenets of grounded theory. It was revealed that there exist major defects with the current socio-pragmatic and pedagogical status of teaching literary criticism to the Iranian MA students and educational gaps are typically ascribed to the learners’ cultural conditions in Iranian EFL context. Results can hopefully provide EFL teachers with ways to recover defects in teaching literary criticism in less widely taught and learnt languages and provide learners with immediate feedback to meet cultural requirements in doing literary criticism.

of Brenneria nigrifluens among bacteria isolated from bark cankers in Persian walnut plants. Journal of plant pathology, 89(2), 211-218. Morone C., Janse J. D., Scortichini M., 1998 - Bark canker of Persian walnut ( Juglans regia ) tree incited by Erwinia nigrifluens in Italy. Journal of phytopathology, 146, 637-639. Norelli J. L., Aldwinckle H. S., Beer S. V., 1984 - Differentiation host pathogen interactions cultivars of apple and strains of Erwinia amylovora , Phtopathology, 47, 136-139. Piccirillo P., 2003 - Il quadro fitopatologico del noce ( Juglans

2015). [5] Haghshenas, A. (2014), The importance of water bodies and structures in the Persian garden architecture. Vestnik MGSU 4. C. 29–36. [6] Kalantari, A. (2011), Persian paradise gardens: history, elements, influences. Master Thesis. University of Southern California. [7] Khansari, M., Moghtader, M. R., Yavari, M. (2004), The Persian garden: echoes of paradise. Mage Publishers, Tehran. [8] Mansouri, S. A. (2005), An introduction to the aesthetics of the Iranian garden. Journal of Bagh-I-Nazar 1(3), 58–63. [9] Pirnia A. (2008), Persian garden. Journal of

References Anvary, H. & Ahmadiye Givy, H. (2012). Persian Grammar 1,2 ( 4th ed. ). Tehran: Fatemi Publishing. Arzhang, G.H. (2008). Modern Persian Grammar . Tehran: Ghatreh Publishing. Ayre, C. & Scally, A.J. (2014). Critical Values for Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio: Revisiting the Original Methods of Calculation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 47 (1), 79–86. Bishop, D.V.M. (2003). Test for Reception of Grammar: Version 2 (TROG-2) . London: Pearson Assessment. Chapman, R.S. & Kohn, L.L. (1978). Comprehension strategies in two

flats, the sabkha, of the Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf. Nature 202(4934): 759–761, DOI 10.1038/202759a0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/202759a0 [13] Evans G, Kinsman DJJ and Shearman DJ, 1964b. A reconnaissance survey of the environment of Recent carbonate sedimentation along the Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf. In: van Straaten LMJU, ed., Deltaic and Shallow Marine Deposits. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 129–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0070-4571(08)70477-1 [14] Friend PF, 1999. Rivers of the Lower Bunaynah Formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In: Whybrow PJ and

References Birner, Betty J. and Mahootian, Shahrzad. 1996. “Functional constraints on inversion in English and Farsi.” Language Sciences 18(1-2):127-138. Birner, Betty J. and Ward, Gregory. 1998. Information status and noncanonical word order in English (Studies in Language Companion Series 40). Amsterdam /Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publication. Karimi, Simin. 1994. “Word-order variations in contemporary spoken Persian” in Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Mehdi Marashi (Ed.). Maryland: IRANBOOKS, pp. 43-73. Karimi