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Background/Aim: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease affecting children worldwide today and represents a serious public health problem. Since pediatricians are the first health professionals whom children visit, they can be considered as a reliable source of information regarding the recognition of potential health problems and suggesting their solution, so they have a key role in primary health prevention. The aim of this study is to determine the position of pediatricians in the prevention of oral health of children in Montenegro through the assessment of their knowledge, attitude, and practice of primary professional preventive measures.

Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among the 84 pediatricians employed in Montenegro Community health services. Self-addressed reply envelope survey consisted questionnaire of 60 questions divided into 5 modules, was used as an instrument for the research.

Results: Response rate was 86%, while 68,3% pediatricians think that gender is a risk factor for dental caries. Fact that cavity-causing bacteria can be transmitted from the mother was confirmed by 69% of respondents. Only 45% of them practice the current guidelines on the recommendation of the first dental examination up to 12 months of life.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that pediatricians in Montenegro have positive attitudes about prevention and believe they have the responsibility to prevent caries but have shown insufficient knowledge about caries and risk factors for the oral diseases.