Karol Basiński, Bartłomiej Ufnalski and Lech M. Grzesiak
particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based MPPT for PV with reduced steady-state oscillation , IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 2012, 60(8), 3627–3638.
 I shaque K., S alam Z., A deterministic particle swarm optimization maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic system under partial shading condition , IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2013, 27(8), 3195–3206.
 B alamurugan M., N arendiran S., S ahoo S.K., D as R., S ahoo A.K., Application of particle swarm optimization for maximum power point tracking in PVsystem , 3rd Int. Conf. Electrical Energy
In this paper is presented a numerical method for measurement and analysis of the charging characteristics I-λ-t (battery current-irradiance-time) of storage batteries for photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The experimental data is obtained from the PV modules by a data acquisition system built in the charger component. An algorithm developed as a Matlab source code is used to model the charging characteristics of the batteries connected to a PV system. Using the interpolation method, the mathematical function of total battery current and depending on time and illumination are obtained. The numerical values of the errors between the theoretical and experimental results prove the accuracy of the proposed method.
As a real progress evolves in the field of wastewater treatment, the scientific community is addressing new challenges at different design levels. One of them constitutes the optimization of energy consumption and the use of various renewable energy sources. In this article technological models of wastewater treatment plant are developed in order to analyze the energy delivered by PV system. The technological models are closely associated to an optimum energy consumption of the plant and the simulation results validate the proposed methodology.
Yuehong Lu, Zafar Khan, Hasan Gunduz, Wei Wang, Jianing Li and Xiao-Ping Zhang
Economic performance of net-zero energy building/community (ZEB/ZEC) is an important factor that affects potential investors’ decision on installing renewable energy systems (RES). A reward-penalty mechanism (RPM) is proposed for accelerating the development of zero energy communities, which is developed without considering the reliability effect from RES generation. However, an investigation is deserved for the reliability effect of RES on building economic performance. A case study is therefore conducted based on an assumed community consisting of 20 family houses, in which the electricity load was collected by the smart meter for more than one year. The results show that the proposed RPM works efficiently under an ideal condition, while the costs of the community and its buildings are greatly increased when the effect of PV system reliability is considered. Specifically, the total cost of the community under 1.0ZEC design is 5 005 USD/yr in the first year, which increases to 11 341 USD/yr in the 25th year. By contrast, the total cost of the community under 1.2ZEC design is 5 243 USD/yr in the first year and increases to 9 607 USD/yr in the 25th year. It is believed that the results of this study can provide a progressive perspective for scheme makers and building owners in terms of its economic benefit. Development of enhanced RPM by considering system reliability will be investigated in our future work.
Study of Simple MPPT Converter Topologies for Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems
This paper presents a study of two simple MPPT converter topologies for grid integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. A general description and a steady state analysis of the discussed converters are presented. Main operating modes of the converters are explained. Calculations of main circuit element parameters are provided.
Experimental setups of the MPPT converters with the power of 800 W were developed and verified by means of main operation waveforms. Also, experimental and theoretical boost properties of the studied topologies are compared.
Finally, the integration possibilities of the presented MPPT converters with a grid side inverter are discussed and verified by simulations.
Photovoltaic technology is worldwide used to provide reliable and cost-effective electricity for industrial, commercial, residential and community applications. The average lifetime of PV modules can be expected to be more than 25 years. The disposal of PV systems will emerge as a problem, considering the still increasing production of PV modules. Recycling of such modules can be done at about the same cost level as its disposal. Recovering the pure silicon from damaged or end-of-life PV modules can lead to economical and environmental benefit. Chemical treatment conditions need to be precisely adjusted in order to achieve the required purity level of the recovered silicon. For crystalline silicon based PV systems, a series of etching processes has been carried out as follows: electric connectors (etching or removing), ARC and n-p junction etching. The chemistry of etching solutions was individually adjusted for the different silicon cell types. Efforts were taken in order to formulate a universal composition of etching solution.
A precise estimation of the electrical energy produced daily by photovoltaic (PV) systems is important both for PV owners and for electrical grid operators. It can be achieved if the received solar irradiance can be accurately estimated during any type of daily solar profile (clear, cloudy, mixed sky), not only average solar profile for larger periods of time, e.g. one month or season, as used in PV system design. The paper firstly describes an existing mathematical model, based on the Meliss approach, which uses mean monthly coefficients for estimating average direct and diffuse solar irradiance. This model is satisfactory for monthly/annual intervals but is not useful for daily estimations. Therefore in the second part of the paper an algorithm which allows to generate daily variations of the model’s coefficients for clear and cloudy sky conditions is proposed. The improved model with variable coefficients was tested during several representative days and can be used for estimating the effect which different meteorological conditions as fog/dew/frost have on the quantity and quality of the solar irradiance received by a PV convertor.
A desideratum of the society, not only in Romania, is the efficiency of the electricity consumption and its passage on green energy in a bigger proportion. This can be achieved by research on various topics chosen from different areas of the economy. One of the most widespread public institutions is education, which is why the results obtained from the research of such a subject can bring major benefits to the entire society. In general, the structure of pre-university education institutions is similar, with classrooms, laboratories equipped with the same types of electric consumers, and very close heating systems. This article proposes a method of monitoring the electrical energy and consumption parameters of a pre-university education institution in Romania. The results obtained are compared to the energy quality standards and will be the basis for a PV system that will be designed to ensure the entire energy consumption of the institution.
Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Aleksander Zaremba and Maria Wacławek
The article presents the results of a 13-year tests and analysis of performance and energy and electrical charge yield for typical photovoltaic modules made of different absorbers. Modules were installed on the south wall of Opole University building (at kard. B. Kominka Street). Registered in this period (2001-2013) values energy and charge of tested modules are presented in reference to 1 Wp their nominal power and to 1 m2 of PV modules. Their annual and monthly distributions, with particular emphasis on the seasonal changes of its parameters and phenomena of aging and degradation of the PV modules structure were shown. In the final part of the article was presented an economic analysis of the profitability of investment in 20 kWp grid connected PV system with and without implemented the program to support investment in renewable energy, which respect to the newly implemented in Poland Act on RES.
The article presents the use of photovoltaic installation in a building with office space and a section for kindergarten to support the production of electricity using solar energy. Accepted technological installation solution, capital expenditures to be incurred for the project and payback time are shown. Paper presents the results of the performance simulation of the PV system adopted depending on the angle of photovoltaic panels. Designed photovoltaic installation consists of 62 panels with a total nominal power of 15.5 kW. The use of photovoltaics in the facility allow reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by approximately 52%. In Poland, most of the electricity produced is still based on coal and lignite. Photovoltaics is one of the renewable sources of energy, so-called “Green” energy. The investment could be made thanks to the Regional Operational Programme Podlaski, Activity 5.2 Development of local infrastructure, environmental protection 2007-2013.