pentylentetrazol-induced seizures in rats. Seizure 2010;19(5):296–299. 7. Andrews JS, Turski L, Stephens DN – Does the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) cue reflect PTZ-induced kindling or PTZ-induced anxiogenesis? Drug Dev Res 1989;16(2–4):247–256. 8. Szyndler J, Rok P, Maciejak P, et al. – Effects of pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling of seizures on rat emotional behavior and brain monoaminergic systems 2002;73:851–861. 9. Morimoto K – Seizure-triggering mechanisms in the kindling model of epilepsy: Collapse of GABA-mediated inhibition and activation of NMDA receptors. Neurosci
The aim of the study was to evaluate seizure liability in rats against the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) during a 14-day treatment with retigabine (RTG). The seizure liability was also studied on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after the abrupt determination of its administration. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups of 10 and treated orally for 14 days (1st – 6th group with distilled water, and 7th – 12th group with retigabine (RTG) at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw The tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of RTG was studied using subcutaneous injection of PTZ (120 mg/kg bw) on the 1th and 14th day. To determine the possible neuronal hyperexcitability on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after termination of drug administration, a lower dose of PTZ (65 mg/kg bw) was used. According to our results there was no change in the anticonvulsant activity of RTG during the whole period of treatment. The study on withdrawal syndrome showed slightly decrease of the effect on the first day after the last treatment, but with no significant difference to the controls. The anticonvulsant effect of RTG on the 2nd and 3rd day was close to that in the control group. Our results showed no development of tolerance on subchronic treatment with RTG. There was no significant change in the neuronal hyperexcitability on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day after the termination of treatment. Based on these results we can suggest that RTG has no potential to develop withdrawal syndrome.
: how is it implicated in the control of seizure susceptibility. Life Sci 2005:76(9): 955-70. 11. Tchekalarova J, Georgiev V. Ang II and Ang III modulate PTZ seizure threshold in non-stressed and stressed mice: possible involvement of noradrenergic mechanism. Neuropeptides 2006;40(5):339-48. 12. Georgieva D, Georgiev V. The role of angiotensin II and of its receptor subtypes in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1999;62:229-32. 13. Pelegrini-da-Silva A, Martins AR, Prado WA. A new role for the renin-angiotensin system in the
Spermine and L-Name Pretreatment Effects on Polyamine and Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Rat Brain During Seizures
In the CNS polyamines can exert opposite effects, depending on the concentration and conditions in the cell. Protective or neurotoxic polyamine effects were documented during seizures and repeated CNS excitation. Intensive research of exogenous polyamines effects during seizures induced by numerous agents did not clear up confusions about the duality of effects and the role of polyamines in seizures. In order to understand polyamine modulatory effects in seizures, the importance of NO and polyamine metabolism interdependence and the possible implication of changes of postulated NO and polyamine equillibrium in seizures, the effects of spermine alone and in combination with L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) on seizures induced by pentazol (PTZ) were investigated. To compare the obtained results, the effects of anticonvulsant midazolam on NO production during seizures were also investigated. Seizures were induced by i.p. application of pentazol (100 mg/kg b.w.). Spermine and L-NAME were administered i.p. before PTZ. In the striatum and hippocampus, spermine induced increased NO production (p<0.001) related to values in the group treated by PTZ. Application of L-NAME before spermine and PTZ caused decrease of NO production in comparison with animals treated only by PTZ or spermine and PTZ. L-NAME given before spermine exerts protective effects related to seizures induced by PTZ and to the group treated by spermine, extending the time of seizure symptoms appearance, thus confirming the NO signaling system involvement in spermine effects during seizures. Highly significant PAO activity increase caused by spermine points out the intensified interconversion of spermine into putrescine, in order to maintain the intracellular putrescine concentration. The obtained results prove a strong relationship between the NO signaling system and polyamine metabolism in the brain during seizures and the importance of their changes in this kind of CNS injury.
Background: Increased risk of osteoporotic bone fractures represents the adverse event in andropausal men. Due to diminished calcium absorption in elderly, its supplementa- tion is used for prevention and treatment of advanced-age osteoporosis.
Methods: Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated (SO), orchidectomized (Orx) and Ca2+- treated orchidectomized (Orx+Ca) groups. Ca2+ (28.55 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intramuscularly for 3 weeks, while the SO and Orx received vehicle alone. Parathyroid glands (PTG) were analyzed histomorphometrically, while the expression of NaPi 2a mRNA from kidneys was deter- mined by real time PCR. NaPi 2a and PTH1R abundance was detected immunofluorescently. Serum and urine parameters were determined biochemically.
Results: The PTG volume was 15% (p<0.05) greater in Orx rats than in the SO group. In Orx+Ca2+ animals, PTG vol- ume was decreased by 17% (p<0.05), when compared to the Orx rats. Orchidectomy led to an increment of serum PTH of 13% (p<0.05) compared to the SO group, while Orx+Ca decreased it by 10% (p<0.05) when compared to Orx animals. The intensity of the NaPi 2a signal was reduced in Orx rats, in comparison with the SO group. Orx+Ca2+ treatment increased the abundance of NaPi 2a, compared to the Orx group. In Orx rats, the staining for PTH1R was stronger when compared to the SO group, while the Orx+Ca2+ treatment induced reduction of the PTH1R immunofluorescence, compared to Orx animals. Orchidectomy increased Pi urinary concentrations by 8% (p<0.05), in comparison with the SO control, while in the Orx+Ca2+ group urinary Pi concentration was 5% lower (p<0.05) than for the Orx rats.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that Ca2+ administration reduces the PTH serum level and the presence of PTH1R, while increased abundance of NaPi 2a cotransporter posi- tively regulates Pi urine reabsorption in an animal model of the andropause.
., Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and Motion Control, John Willey & Sons, 2011.  PTZ-35 MS, PTZ-50 MS, Installation and Operational Manual, FLIR Systems.  Milewski S., Fundamental Limitations to Infrared Sensor Performance in Maritime Conditions [in Polish], III International Scientific and Technical Conference ‘Marine Technology and Arms’ NATCon, Gdynia 2009.  Yilmaz A., Object tracking and activity recognition in video acquired using mobile cameras (a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the
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