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The effects of psychological stress, gender and age on hair and skin pigmentation levels were evaluated in the reported study. The material included Polish high-school and university students aged 18-22 (in the age range 17.50-22.49). All subjects who had sunbathed or used tanning beds or lamps, skin tanning agents, tanning extenders and/or medical agents affecting skin pigmentation during the 60 days preceding the beginning of the study were excluded. The use of hormonal contraceptives within a month prior to the study was also an excluding factor. Stress levels were evaluated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in the Polish adaptation, while hair and skin pigmentation levels were assessed with a dermaspectrometer (Cortex Technology®, Denmark, 2007). The study was carried out with the exclusion of the summer period. Skin pigmentation was evaluated in 395 subjects (264 women and 131 men). Hair pigmentation was analyzed in a smaller group of 351 subjects (223 women and 128 men), as some had had their hair dyed within 12 months prior to the study while in some others the hair was too short to be correctly measured.

Regardless of their age, the studied women felt much more stress related to their life situation and were characterized by stronger skin pigmentation than the examined men. No sex differences were identified with regard to hair pigmentation. In the studied period of ontogenesis (18-22 years of age), hair pigmentation levels increased with age, while skin melanization remained stable. Disregarding the effects of age and sex, the level of perceived stress was negatively correlated with skin pigmentation levels; no such relationship was found for hair melanization.

w radzeniu sobie ze stresem. Meritum. 2010;4:31-6. 12. Kossakowska K. Źródła wsparcia społecznego i wybrane sposoby radzenia sobie u kobiet z objawami depresji poporodowej. Probl Pielęg. 2012;20(3):310-6. 13. Kowalska J, Olszowa D, Markowska D, et al. Aktywność fizyczna i szkoła rodzenia w czasie ciąży a poziom postrzeganego stresu i objawów depresyjnych u kobiet po porodzie. Psychiatr Pol. 2014;48(5):889-900. 14. Chaaya M, Osman H, Naassan G, et al. Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS - 10) among pregnant and postpartum women


Aim. The study was to assess the level of stress and the health locus of control in parents of hospitalized newborns.

Material and methods. The study covered a group of 150 parents of 126 newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Pathology Ward at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin. The diagnostic survey method was applied with the use of an original questionnaire as well as some standardized tools: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC – version B).

Results. In more than a half of the subjects (54.0%), a high level of stress was observed. Every fourth (26.1%) parent was characterized by an average level of stress and nearly every fifth (19.3%) by a low level of stress. The highest indicator was characterized by the domain of the internal health control locus. Every fifth parent represented an undifferentiated type - weak or magnifying the impact of others (22.0% and 20.0% respectively). The smallest group of parents (5.3%) belonged to the externally-oriented, strong type. Conclusions. The parents of hospitalized newborns are characterized mainly by high and average levels of stress and low level of severity of health control location within each of its domains. The highest indicator of internal locus control and the influence of others are characterized by parents with low and average levels of stress. The dominant type of locus of health control that characterizes parents is the undifferentiated type – weak and magnifying the impact of others.


Introduction. Work on a farm is characterized by many dangers that result from the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors harmful to the functioning of the human body. Farmers experience the psychological and physical burden a lot.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the overall perceived stress intensity index, coping strategies and stress generating factors in the group of people working on a farm, as well as to determine the relationship between these variables and sociodemographic factors.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2019 and 165 people working on a farm located in Lesser Poland participated in it. Standardized research tools were used – the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Brief COPE Inventory and original questionnaire. During the data analysis the significance level was α = 0.05.

Results. Over half of the respondents felt average levels of stress. People working on a farm used the strategies: Active coping, Planning, Acceptance the most often, and the strategies: Substance use, Denial and Behavioural disengagement – the least. There is a relationship between the perception of stress and age, the level of agricultural education and the professional status of the respondents.

Conclusions. Most of the people working on the farm felt the average level of stress and they were dealing with this mainly using problem-oriented strategies. However, with the increase in tension caused by stress, respondents significantly more often reached for less effective remedial strategies


The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between temperament and stress, to assess the stress level and perform comparative analysis of feeling of stress before and after the race. The test group consisted of 30 competitors from Mazovian cycling clubs between the ages of 15 and 16 (M = 15.5, SD = 0.50). Standard psychological questionnaires were used for the study. The level of stress was tested using the PSS 10 questionnaire by S. Cohen, T. Kamarck and R. Mermelstein. In addition, temperament was studied with Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory by Zawadzki and Strelau (1997). Measures were used to determine the constant predisposition of cyclists to feel the level of stress, as well as to show the intensity of stress during sports competitions (before and after the start). Statistical analyses carried out with the Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference between the initial and final value of the stress level as a condition in the subjects. It was found that in the same people, stress reached a higher average level after the race (M = 17.8, SD = 6) than before the performance (M = 11.83, SD = 5.9). The results show that the state of stress does not decrease after the start, as occurs with other variables (including emotional arousal). The results showed that stress measured before and after the start of a competition positively correlates with perseverance and emotional reactivity, while stress before the start negatively correlates with briskness. Observations from the analyses carried out may broaden the understanding of the phenomenon of stress, especially in aspects of sport competition and track cyclists.


Introduction. The aim of this article is to discuss the relationship between affective states experienced by athletes and the outcome of their performance. The article presents the findings of a pilot study which made it possible to determine the relationship between the emotional states, mood, and level of stress of a group of pentathletes and the outcomes they achieved in a sports competition. Material and methods. The study involved 12 senior modern pentathletes, including 7 male and 5 female athletes. The following standard psychology questionnaires were used in the study: the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Profile of Mood State (POMS). Performance was assessed based on the number of points achieved by the pentathletes in particular events in the pentathlon, which are held according to the rules set by the International Modern Pentathlon Union (UIPM). Results. The findings of the study confirmed that there was a correlation between the athletes’ mood and emotions and the outcome of their performance. The level of stress strongly negatively correlated with both the outcome they expected to achieve and the one they actually achieved for the combined event (running and shooting). For this event a relationship was also found between the athletes’ affective states and their outcomes: in running and shooting there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between the level of positive emotions and anger and the results achieved. However, friendliness, one of the other affective state variables that were measured, correlated negatively with the outcomes of the athletes’ performance. Conclusions. In the group of pentathletes who participated in the study, a high level of anger was associated with better outcomes, and a high level of friendliness had an adverse effect on the results achieved. The findings of the current study confirm that there is a relationship between affective states and performance outcomes, but the findings do not correspond with Morgan’s iceberg profile.

). The Lithuanian version of the MSPSS reported an internal consistency value of .61 for the entire scale ( Malinauskas, 2010 ). A total indicator of perceived social support (MSPSS-Total) was calculated by averaging items in the present study. The coefficient alpha for the whole scale was .71 for the present sample. Perceived Stress Scale–10 (PSS-10) The Perceived Stress Scale–10 is a 10-item, self-report inventory that assesses the degree to which situations in an individual's life are appraised as stressful ( Cohen et al., 1983 ). PSS-10 items were designed to

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