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Abstract

Prunus necrotic ring spot ilarvirus (PNRSV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV) are common in plum orchards. The aim of the study was to obtain virus-free planting material of Prunus domestica L. by chemotherapy in vitro. Ribavirin at concentrations of 10 to 50 mg·l−1 was added to Murashige–Skoog (MS) nutrition medium for virus eradication from microshoots. After a two-week period of chemotherapy, meristems were subcultured monthly on MS medium and proliferation index of shoots was estimated. Microshoots were retested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. At lowest concentrations of 10 mg·l−1 ribavirin was entirely ineffective for ACLSV and 10 to 30 mg·l−1 was ineffective for PNRSV elimination. Ribavirin concentrations of 40 and 50 mg·l−1 destroyed both pathogens. However, at higher concentrations of 40 and 50 mg·l−1 ribavirin exhibited some signs of phytotoxicity on microshoots in the first sub-cultivation period. In order to test the genetic stability of the microplants after chemotherapy the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied. Plant genome stability in ‘Magna Glauca’ at concentrations of 40 mg·l−1 was damaged, as the presence of polymorphic AFLP markers were observed.

. Virol. Meth., 133 , 124-129. Herrera, M., Madariaga, V. (2002). Incidencia de Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Y Plum Pox Virus (PPV) en viveros de frutales de carozo de la zona central de Chile. Agr. Tecn. , 62 , 38-45. Isac, M., Preda, S., Marcu, M. (1998). Aphid species-vectors of Plum pox virus . Acta Virol. , 42 , 233-234. Jarošová, J., Kumar, J. (2010). Simultaneous detection of stone fruit tree viruses by one-step multiplex RT-PCR. Sci. Hort. , 125 , 68-72. Jarrar, S., Myrta, A., di

Abstract

The phytosanitary status of wild growing stone fruit trees and shrubs was examined in surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 in the region of Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. A total of 159 leaf samples were collected (42 cherries, 77 bird cherries, 10 cherry plums, 13 blackthorns, 2 round plums, 15 plums) and tested for the presence of Plum pox virus (PPV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry virus A (CVA), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), and Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Totally 28.3% of the investigated trees and shrubs were infected by at least one monitored virus. Mixed infection occurred in 5 out of 159 trees (3.1%). PPV was the most widespread virus (13.2% of samples), followed by PDV (11.3%). Contrary to these two most relevant viral pathogens, the incidence of CLRV and CVA was negligible in individually growing trees of the genus Prunus and ApMV, ACLSV, CGRMV, and CNRMV were not detected at all.

. Concerning the stone fruits, certifi cation includes, among others, the ab- sence of Plum pox virus (PPV), Apple chlorot- ic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Prunus necrotic ring- spot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) and the European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma (ESFY). In order to determine the presence © Benaki Phytopathological Institute Hellenic Plant Protection Journal - Special Issue46 of these pathogens in Greece, fi eld samples from new peach orchards of the prefecture of Imathia were collected during the years 2010