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Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the predisposing effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) on Pasteurella spp. infection in naturally-induced pneumonia in cattle by immunohistochemical labelling.

Material and Methods: Lungs of cattle slaughtered in the slaughterhouse were examined macroscopically, and 100 pneumonic samples were taken. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin by routine methods. Sections 5 μm in thickness were cut. The streptavidin-peroxidase method (ABC) was used to stain the sections for immuno-histochemical examination.

Results: BRSV antigens were found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoles and within inflammatory cell debris and inflammatory exudate in bronchial lumens. Pasteurella spp. antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of bronchi and bronchioles, and in cells in the lumens of bronchi and bronchioles. Eleven cases were positive for only one pathogen (six for BRSV and five for Pasteurella spp.), while 35 cases were positive for 2 pathogens: BRSV plus P. multocida (n = 21) or M. haemolytica (n = 14).

Conclusion: The presence of high levels of BRSV in dual infections indicates that BSRV may be the main pneumonia-inducing agent and an important predisposing factor for the formation of Pasteurella spp. infections in cattle naturally afflicted with pneumonia.

the microbes are unable to multiply in the host and one dose is not sufficient to stimulate the adaptive immune system ( 2 ). However, not enough information is available regarding multiple doses of inactivated bovine respiratory bacterial vaccines given to young Holstein calves. Here, we report antibody responses to a booster dose of inactivated H. somni , P. multocida , and M. haemolytica vaccines given to young Holstein calves in the field. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the vaccine would overcome maternal immunity, and determine

Abstract

The expressions of cytokines mRNA, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin- 17A (IL-17A) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), their master regulatory transcription factors, and signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT) stimulated in vitro with Pasteurella (P.) multocida soluble antigen were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Holstein calves. The healthy Holstein calves were divided into three groups; 2 weeks old (2W Group, N=8), 6 weeks old (6W Group, N=8), and 10 weeks old (10W Group, N=8). PBMC were stimulated in vitro by soluble antigen of P. multocida. There were significantly lower expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, and STAT-6 mRNA of PBMC stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen in the 2W Group compared to that in the 10W Group. Expression of IL-17A and IFN-γ in PBMC stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen were significantly higher compared with the PBMC without stimulation in the 6W groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that 2W old calves had decreased cytokine expression of PBMC when in vitro stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen in vitro.

Abstract

Background: Pasteurella multocida is a small, gram-negative coccobacillus, which most commonly causes soft tissue infections due to animal bites or scratches, mainly from cats and dogs. Immunocompromised hosts, such as cancer patients, are more likely to develop systemic complications as a result of P. multocida infections. Objective: Retrospectively analyze the medical records of four afflicted patients being managed at Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, USA between 1999 and 2009, and careful study for additional 32 cases of P. multocida infection among cancer patients with variegated histology found in the current medical literature. Methods: Of 36 subjects, 67% of the patients had been diagnosed with a solid organ cancer, whereas 33% had a hematologic malignancy. Clinical scenarios described fever as the most frequent initial presentation and bacteremia as the most prevalent mode of infection. Results: Forty-seven percent of the patients had experienced some sort of animal contact and 41% showed evidence of skin or soft tissue infection. The status of the white blood cell count, was available in 22 patients (of 36 patients), and 27% demonstrated neutropenia. The survival percentage of the patients with known clinical outcome was 77%. Conclusion: Medical management mostly involved antibiosis with beta-lactams. Atypical scenario of Pasteurella multocida infection may involve bites or scratches (specifically from cats or dogs) in a cancer patient presenting with sepsis and accompanied by skin or soft tissue or respiratory tract infection. A high level of suspicion for P. multocida as a possible pathogen in cancer patients would facilitate an amelioration in morbidity ameliorating, and timely initiation of specific antibiotics.

Abstract

The investigations covered a total of 234 lungs from necropsied pigs with different pneumonic lesions, from 6 farrow-to-finish pig farms during 2013 and 2014. The samples were inoculated on selective culture media and aerobically incubated at 37°C and in carbon dioxide condition. The isolated bacterial colonies were further characterised morphologically and biochemically. The identification was confirmed using the BBL Crystal, E/N, G/P ID Kit (Becton Dickinson). For determination of the type of Pasteurella multocida, the PCR method was used. The findings showed that bacteria were isolated from 202 (86%) out of 234 examined lung samples. The pure isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from 71 (35 %) samples. Out of the remaining 29 (14%) examined lung samples, 9, 8, 7 and 5 examined lung samples were shown as mixed cultures of Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis, respectively. The PCR method confirmed that all 15 investigated strains of P. multocida belong to type A.