William L. Grogan, Lawrence J. Hribar and Francis G. Howarth
We provide the first United States records of the Old World biting midge, Forcipomyia (Lepidohelea) pulcherrima SANTOS ABREU (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), from California, Florida and Hawaii. The fourth instar larva of F. pulcherrima is also described and illustrated for the first time.
In his international novels, Henry James builds the image of England through the eyes of the American characters that travel in this country. London is the perfect setting for his international novels, as it becomes an integral part of the person or the action he is narrating.
Woodpecker species whose cavities are most usurped by Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are widespread and generalists in their use of habitats. These include primarily woodpeckers that are similar in size to or slightly larger than the starling - such as the Great-spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) of Eurasia and the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) and Red-bellied (Melanerpes carolinus) and Red-headed (M. erythrocephalus) Woodpeckers of North America. Usurpation occurs primarily in human-dominated urban, suburban and exurban habitats with pastures, sports fields and other open areas that serve as prime feeding habitats for starlings. Starlings prefer high, more exposed cavities with a minimal entrance diameter relative to their body size. Usurpation success depends on timing - optimally just as a cavity is completed and before egg-laying by the woodpeckers. Starlings likely reduce woodpecker populations in more open, human-dominated habitats. Woodpecker habitat losses and fragmentation are more serious problems that enhance habitat quality for starlings and reduce habitat quality for most woodpeckers. The only woodpeckers that might become in danger of extinction as a primary result of starling cavity usurpation are likely island species with small populations. Conservation of rare species limited to islands, such as Fernandina’s Flicker (Colaptes fernandinae) of Cuba, may depend on our ability to prevent the establishment of the Common Starling or other aggressive cavity competitors on their island.
Understanding and interpreting impacts of woodpecker cavity usurpation must include consideration of past woodpecker and Common Starling population fluctuations, breadth of habitats used by woodpecker species, and habitat limitations of Common Starlings. Conservation efforts for woodpeckers and other primary and secondary cavity-nesting species must focus on changes in tree, forest and ecosystem management to encourage maintenance of dead wood, large contiguous tracts that include diverse tree species and old growth, and forested linkages among such areas.
Miloš Černý, Rui Andrade, Ana Rita Gonçalves and Michael von Tschirnhaus
descriptions of twenty four OldWorld species. – International Journal of dipterological Research 13(4): 205- 245.
Zlobin V.V. (2005): A revised check list of Swedish Agromyzidae (Diptera). – International Journal of dipterological Rese- arch 16(3): 167-181.
., Esper, J., Griggs, C., Gunnarson, B., Günther, B., Gutierrez, E., Haneca, K., Helama, S., Herzig, F., Heussner, K.-U., Hofmann, J., Janda, P., Kontic, R., Köse, N., Kyncl, T., Levanič, T., Linderholm, H., Manning, S., Melvin, M.T., Miles, D., Neuwirth, B., Nicolussi, K., Nola, P., Panayotov, M., Popa, I., Rothe, A., Seftigen, K., Seim, A., Svarva, H., Svoboda, M., Thun, T., Timonen, M., Touchan, R., Trotsiuk, V., Trouet, V., Walder, F., Ważny, T., Wilson, R., Zang, C. 2015. OldWorld megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science Advances 1 (10), e1500561
., NEUWIRTH B., NICOLUSSI K., NOLA P., PANAYOTOV M., POPA I., ROTHE A., SEFTIGEN K., SEIM A., SVARVA H., SVOBODA M., THUN T., TIMONEN M., TOUCHAN R., TROTSIUK V., TROUET V., WALDER F., WAŻNY T., WILSON R. & ZANG C. 2015. OldWorld megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science Adv., 1: DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500561.
COOK E., SHIYATOV S. & MAZEPA V. 1990b. Estimation of the mean chronology: 123–132. In: Cook E.R. & Kairiukstis L.A. (eds), Methods of Dendrochronology: Applications in the Environmental Sciences. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
This paper aims to address the mythopoeic aspect of Neil Gaiman’s American Gods, so as to disclose the elements of American cultural identity embedded in the novel. It is an attempt to analyse its legends, myths, folklore, popular culture figures, intertwined with Old World mythology, assessing their viability as modern myths, through the lens of formalist and structuralist reading.
Tanja Švara, Irena Zdovc, Mitja Gombač and Milan Pogačnik
Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae). Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed.
Rolf L. Aalbu, Aaron D. Smith, Kojun Kanda and Patrice Bouchard
Renefouqueosis peruviensis gen. et sp. nov., a new tenebrionid genus and species of the tribe Stenosini (subtribe Stenosina) is described from the arid mountains of Northern Peru. Including the new genus Renefouqueosis gen. nov., the tribe Stenosini now includes 40 valid genera of which nine are from the New World. The genera are placed in six subtribes (two worldwide, two New World and two Old World). Type species and subtribal assignment for each genus is presented. Notes on the placement of the genera Anchomma LeConte, 1858 and Fitzsimonsium Koch, 1962 are given. The proper placement of these genera is uncertain. Because of numerous morphological similarities to the Stenosini, we have decided to place these in a key to the world genera of Stenosini, which we provide.