Myanmar has been undergoing a process of post-socialist systemic transformation. During the reform period, its authorities used policy and institutional solutions of the East Asian development model in its post-socialist version, creating foundations for the post-socialist developmental state (PSDS).
The concept of the PSDS combines features of a developmental state (DS) and systemic transformation from central planning to market. A developmental state (DS) is considered to be an ideological and conceptual basis for the state’s economic policy and institutional and systemic arrangements that resulted in spectacular developmental achievements of some of the East Asian economies in the second half of the 20th century. Post-socialist transformation is considered the most multi-layered and complicated process of systemic reformulation, which took place at the end of the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries.
The article describes the process of building a PSDS in Myanmar. In economic policy, the authorities have focused on the industrialisation through the development of an export production base. Nevertheless, access to the internal market has often been restricted for foreign entities. Planning through a state planning agency remains a key tool in the formulation of a development strategy. In addition, systemic reforms have been gradual rather than radical (a shock therapy).
Standard labor market models predict that the likelihood of employment increases, hours worked increase, and individuals transition from less-skilled and temporary jobs to more skilled and more stable employment as they age. I examine the association between age and transactional sex work using national household surveys from Zambia, one of the few settings with general population surveys asking women about transactional sex and a relatively high documented prevalence of employment in transactional sex. My results indicate that the likelihood of employment in transactional sex sharply falls with age. Increased employment opportunities outside of transactional sex do not appear to explain the transactional sex employment-age profile and marital status appears to explain only a portion of it. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that clients prefer younger transactional sex workers and suggest that policymakers implement interventions designed to reduce client demand for younger females.
Occupational accidents are among the most important issues of the agenda of working life in Turkey recently. Recently the causes and consequences of occupational accidents which are related to human, occupational and environmental factors have received great attention from the researchers but it has been paid little attention to focused on economic factors. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution to redressing this gap by examining the relationship between fatal occupational accidents and economic development over the period of 1980 to 2012 for Turkey. In this context, bounds testing approach which is also known as autoregressive distributed lag model is performed. The results indicate the existence of positive relationship between gross domestic product per capita and fatal occupational accidents in the short-run while in the long run this turns out to be in a negative way via economic growth and changes in structure of the economy.
Since the end of the World War II, Europe has gone a long way on the path of a new era of socio-economic integration, continually battling and overcoming the political and economic fragmentation of earlier eras and less developed economies.
The various difficulties and interruptions of the process involved, the European integration, since the 1952 European Coal and Steel Community, ranged from an initial small group to a large community comprising most European countries, the gradual removal of market barriers leading to the introduction of a customs union to the single market. Furthermore, the creation of Economic and Monetary Union and the adoption of the common currency have become the culmination of the whole process of economic integration, since the euro is used daily by 338.6 million Europeans in 19 EU member states. The aim of our research article is to closely analyze the development of the economic and monetary integration of Europe, since we believe that the single currency project represents a great success for the European Union as the result of long-term efforts on currency and economy stability, progress and economic growth.
Economic and monetary integration is the result of unifying efforts that have become a major driving force in post-war Europe. Although some of the initial initiatives, the Monetary Union project has many times been on the brink of interest. It can be as the surprise that Europe has managed to implement the common currency so soon and relatively smoothly. Nevertheless, even after its launch, this project has never completely abandoned criticism and discussion of the legitimacy and meaningfulness of its existence. Critical attitudes to the introduction of the common currency in the European Union are based above all on the Optimum Currency Area theories. The theoretical concept of optimal currency areas is currently considered a standard tool for assessing monetary integration efforts in Europe. OCA criteria are used to estimate the readiness of the candidate countries to adopt the euro, while the convergence processes are linked to the decision on the euro adoption timeline. The aim of our research article is, therefore, to closely analyze the issue of monetary policies and optimal currency areas in the context of convergence efforts towards more closely integrated economic and monetary unions.
The increasing pace of achieving socio-economic growth and convergence into developed structures represents the main desire of most countries. Moreover, membership in monetary unions has quite a significant impact on the economies of participating countries, since integration processes have become undoubtedly the undisputed accelerator of convergence and integration catalyst, reflecting on the development of the world economy. The growing intensity of world trade, the ever-deepening division of labor and specialization, international movement of capital and labor mobility as wells as investments into education, research and development, innovations are among the factors that lead to the creation of increasingly closer ties between economies, deepening their mutual dependence, further reflected in knowledge-based societies. Thus, the close ties between national economies themselves represent a further incentive for more intensive cooperation through the different stages of economic integration. International economic integration is an objective to promote a gradual process of linking and connecting existing economic units, i.e. national economies to the greater interconnected units in the global economy. The aim of our research paper, by using the methods of analysis and comparison, is to closely present the issue of monetary integration, focusing on the impact of monetary integration on countries’ economy, resulting in the issue of benefits and costs of the countries’ entry into the monetary union, associated with initial economic shocks.
The impact of human economic activity on the environment and its irreversible changes. An interdisciplinary approach to the development of the economic system has been used in this paper due to the fact that the subject of the study goes beyond the functional economic sciences, and economics in general. The study is aimed at investigating the interaction of man, as an economic agent, and the environment. It has led to the study of research papers devoted to natural science, in particular, to changes in geological epochs, sustainable development and economic processes from the position of their influence on the environment. This allowed us to synthesize new economic knowledge about the importance of economic activity in the formation of the new geological epoch, “Anthropocene”. Based on the results of the study, the influence of human economic activity on the environment in the light of the geological, technocratic and economic development of society has been proved. The scientific results which were obtained can be used in reforming national economic systems by adapting them to leading world concepts on sustainable development.
This study focuses on the theoretical analysis of social interaction and relationship between guests and hosts from the perspective of anthropology of tourism. In the 1960s and 1970s, attention was paid predominantly to anthropological reflection of negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on host communities. However, towards the end of the 1980s and during the 1990s the research focus began to shift towards an analysis and interpretation of the influence of commodification on the perceptions of identity and authenticity of the host culture, while the positive aspects of tourism began to be recognized as well. This study aims to present an overview of the basic approaches within the anthropology of tourism to social interaction between guests and hosts. The objective of the study is to provide a summary of miscellaneous approaches to and views on this issue.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers) and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.
Decisions to invest, withdraw, or transfer capital in different foreign markets have become a fixed part of management pragmatics in contemporary companies. The results of the 2017 Global Corporate Divestment Study show that multinational enterprises (MNEs) from particular parts of the world tend to see the main reasons behind their decisions on FDI (foreign direct investment) and FD (foreign direct divestment) in a slightly different manner. Insofar as internationalization processes and FDI have been relatively thoroughly studied and discussed in world and Polish literature, the concept of de-internationalization pursued through the prism of divestment still requires further analysis and consideration. The article aims to present the general framework of the process involving FDI, FD, and the major factors behind it in Poland and Latvia. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with the analysis of statistical data coming from the UNCTAD database as well as the database of Poland’s and Latvia’s central banks, illustrating foreign investment flows. The article uses the method of critical analysis of world and Polish literature, analysis of reports on relevant issues, and desk research analysis.