References  GON. “Rice varietal mapping in nepal: Implication for development and adoption. Government of Nepal: Ministry of Agriculture development, Depatment pf Agriculture, Crop development directiorate, 7, 2015.  B. Basnet, “Envirinmental Friendly Technologies for Increasing Rice Productivity”, The Journal of Agriculture and Environment., Vol. 9, Pp. 34-40, 2008.  MOALC, “Krishi Diary. Hariharbhawan”, Lalitpur: Nepal Government, 2016.  A.P. Regmi, “Improving the productivity of rice-wheat system through field specific nutrientmanagement in Nepal
REFERENCES B eegle D.B., C arton O.T., B aily J.B. 2000. Nutrientmanagement planning: justification, theory, practice. Journal of Environmental Quality. No 29 p. 72–79. Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area 1992. Helsinki Commission Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission, HELCOM, Finland pp. 43. C ordell D., W hite S. 2011. Peak phosphorus: Clarifying the key issues of a vigorous debate about long-term phosphorus security. Sustainability. No 3(10) p. 2027–2049. Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the
Water saving rice cultivation is emerging technique to couple with irrigation water shortage due to climate change all over the world. Major issue in these techniques is to compromise yield and quality fatalities because of higher unfilled grain due to nutrients deficiency. Boron fertilization seems to be big management technique to improve rice agriculture due to having imperative role in pollen viability. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to see the impact of boron fertilization both with basal and foliar application methods in water saving rice cultivation systems. Boron, with basal (3 kg borax/acre) and foliar (2% boron) was applied at different growth stages in rice crop grown under various rice cultivation systems; flooded rice, intermittent flooding and drying and aerobic rice. Boron fertilization both with basal and foliar application technique resulted in improved crop performance in all cultivation systems. Rice plants recorded highest yield, yield attributing parameters like productive tillers, panicle length and grain weight with boron fertilization. Quality parameters like sterile kernels, abortive kernels, opaque kernels were significantly reduced with boron fertilization in all rice cultivation systems. Furthermore, normal kernels were enhanced with basal and foliar application of boron nutrition. Likewise, maximum water use efficiency was recorded in foliar application of boron at panicle stage under intermittent flooding and drying condition. Foliar application of boron nutrition at panicle initiation stage was found to be most appropriate in water saving rice cultivation systems.
Journal of Agricultural Research, 75(1): 42-49. Rameshaiah G.N., Jpallavi S., 2015: Nano fertilizers and nano sensors - an attempt for developing smart agriculture. - International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(1): 314-320. Rao A.S., Reddy S., 2010: Integrated NutrientManagement vis-a-vis Crop Production/Productivity, Nutrient Balance, Farmer Livelihood and Environment: India. Rayan J., Somm er R., Ibrikci H., 2012: Fertilizer best management practices: a perspective from the dryland West Asia-North Africa region. - Journal of Agronomy and Crop
Integrated nutrient management strategies involving chemical and biological fertilizer is a real challenge to stop using the high rates of agrochemicals and to enhance sustainability of crop production. In order to study the effects of biofertilizers (Cerialin and Nitrobein) and chemical nitrogen levels (0, 85,170 and 250 kg N ha−1) on yield and yield attributes of two wheat cultivars (Sakha 94 and Gemmeiza 10), an agricultural experiment in the form of strip-split factorial design with three replications was conducted in Kafr El-Sheikh region, Egypt, in 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 growing seasons. The objective of this study was evaluation of the effects of these fertilizers separately and in integrated forms, and setting out the best fertilizer mixture. The results showed that treatment with biofertilizers and chemical nitrogen increased the growth, yield attributes, biological and grain yield. Both grain and biological yield produced a better result during the combination of nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizers than using either method alone. Using biofertilizers increased biological yield through increase in number of grains spike−1, number of spikes m−2 and 1000 grain weight, which cause to increase in grain yield with significant changes in harvest index, as well as protein content. We may conclude that using biofertilizers (Cerialin or Nitrobein) and chemical nitrogen fertilizer (170 or 250 kg N ha−1) together had the maximum impact on yield. Then, we can decrease use of chemical fertilizers through using biofertilizers.
Integrated nutrient management strategies involving chemical and biologic fertilizer is a real challenge to stop using the high rates of agrochemicals and to enhance sustainability of crop production. In order to study the effects of livestock manure, chemical nitrogen, and biologic (Azotobacter) fertilizers on yield and yield components of wheat, an agricultural experiment in the form of split factorial design with three replications was conducted in Elam region, Iran. The aim of this research was assessment of the effects of these fertilizers separately and in integrated forms; and setting out the best fertilizer mixture. The results showed that treatment with livestock manure, Azotobacter and chemical nitrogen increased plant height, biological and grain yield. Using livestock manure and Azotobacter increased biologic yield through increase in plant height which cause to increase in grain yield without any significant changes in harvest index and other yield components, but the use of chemical nitrogen caused an increase in plant height, No. of spikelete/spike, No. of grain/spike, one thousand grain weight and harvest index, biologic and grain yield. In the light of the results achieved, we may conclude that using livestock manure and chemical nitrogen fertilizer together with the Azotobacter had the maximum impact on yield; and that we can decrease use of chemical fertilizers through using livestock manure and biologic fertilizers and to reach to the same yield when we use only chemical fertilizers.
Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW), which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium N (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN), potassium (K), phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total) (MRP and TP) and dry matter (DM) content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l) of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively). A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1), rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January), while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM), rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken) plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated. This, in turn, also influences the concentration of nutrients and other chemicals. Large variability was found in nutrient concentrations and this presents a challenge for effective nutrient management to maximise the fertilizer replacement value of DSW.
References  B. L. D’Appolonia, W. H. Kunerth (eds.), The Farinograph Handbook. AACC, St. Paul, MN, 1984.  C. L. Reese, D. E. Clay, D. Beck, R. Englund, Is protein enough for assessing wheat flour quality? Western NutrientManagement Conference. Salt Lake City, UT 7. (2007) 85-90.  L. Hruzsvai, Sz. Vincze (2012). SPSS-könyv Seneca Books. 294-301  ISO 5530-1:2013 Wheat flour - Physical charasteristics of doughs https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5530:-1:ed-3:v1:en.  Y. L. Liu, J. C. V. Tian, X. M. Deng, Z. Y. Deng, Comparison of different dough
References Fotyma M., Pańczyszyn T., Pietruch C.: A decision suport system for sustainable nutrientmanagement on farm level, Nawozy i nawożenie , 2001 , 2, 7 - 26. Barker J. C., Hodges S. C., Walls F. R.: Livestock manure production rates and nutrient content, North Caroliana Agricultural Chemicals Manual, 2002 . Smolińska T.: Surowce odpadowe przemysłu drobiarskiego oraz ich zagospodarowanie, Odpady specjalne, Wyd. AR Wrocław , 1997 . PN-Z-15011-2:2001 - Metoda oznaczania pH w kompostach. PN-88/R-04013 - Oznaczanie powietrznie suchej i suchej masy. PN -Z
References Barszczewski J., Jankowska-Huflejt H., Prokopowicz J., 2006. Bilanse azotu, fosforu i potasu w gospodarstwach ekologicznych o dużym udziale łąk i pastwisk. Woda Środowisko Obszary Wiejskie 6, 16: 3S-46. Janssen B.H., Willigen P., 2006. Ideal and saturated soil fertility as bench marks in nutrientmanagement. 1. Outline of the framework. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116: 132- 146. Kopiński J., 2007. Bilans azotu brutto dla Polski i województw w latach 2002-200S. Studia i Raporty IUNG-PIB. S: 117- 131. Parris K., 1998: Agricultural nutrient