This article presents the hydrographic and hydrochemical characteristics of this lake. Lake Jazerske is located in the Western Carpathians (Spiš Magura) in northern Slovakia. It occupies a depression that was formed at the foot of the main scarp of a landslide. Below the lake, there are small intercolluvial depressions that have been transformed into wetlands (peat bogs). The studied lake is very small. Its area is 3600 m2 and its length is 85 m. The maximum depth of the lake is 7.2 m and its capacity is 17 000 m3. The lake is supplied by an inflow of groundwater via fractured aquifers. During periods of heavy rainfall and snow melting, the lake is also supplied by the water from surface runoff. On the main slope of the landslides, traces of ephemeral courses were also found. During the periods of increased supply (spring snow melting, summer rainfall), the outflow of water from the lake occurs both on the surface and underground. In terms of its hydrochemistry, the lake water represents the four-ion type - bicarbonate-sulphate-calcium-magnesium. The concentrations of various ions is characteristic of the shallow groundwater of the Carpathian flysch. The predominant cation, the average concentration of which is 52 mg dm-3, is calcium. The dominant anion is carbohydrates with an average concentration of 163 mg dm-3. What is interesting is the very low levels of chlorides, which do not exceed 2 mg dm-3. The electrolytic conductivity of the water flowing out of the lake ranged from 290 to 328 μS cm-1.
Jana Medvecká, Ivan Jarolímek and Mária Zaliberová
Dynamics and Distribution of Neophytes in Ruderal Vegetation of the Horná Orava Region (Northern Slovakia)
Based on research of ruderal vegetation in the Horná Orava region in the 1980s and in 2005-2007, a list of neophytes was compiled. Thirty-three species of neophytes have been found, representing 6% of the overall flora. The geographical origin, family, life-history, life-form and status of invasion of these species were assessed. The biggest proportion of the species was of North American origin (49%), therophytes (49%) and members of the family Asteraceae (38%). Most of the neophytes are garden "escapees" and only few of them may be considered to be of potential hazard to the studied region, most particularly Fallopia japonica, Impatiens glandulifera and Solidago canadensis. Types of plant communities, where particular neophytes were found, and the foci of their distribution were evaluated as well. Neophytes are most abundant in communities of the class Galio-Urticetea, and especially of the alliance Senecionion fluviatilis. Comparing older and present data, trends in the progression of non-indigenous species in the Horná Orava region were predicted. It is apparent that the number of localities of invasive species is increasing and even other species that in the literature from the other regions are mentioned as invasive tend to spread through the area.
Iveta Smetanová, Monika Műllerová, Karol Holý, Attila Moravcsík, Tibor Kovács, Anita Csordás, Martin Neznal, Matej Neznal, Krzysztof Kozak, Jadwiga Mazur and Dominik Grzadziel
Integration measurements of indoor radon in houses were performed within the framework of the project “Harmonization of determining the radiation dose of the population originating from radon in V4 countries”. In Slovakia, the survey was performed in three localities: Záhorská Bystrica, Mochovce and Ružomberok. Monitoring started in March 2012 and lasted for one year. In Ružomberok ten houses were selected for monitoring purposes. The houses built before 1990 were predominantly chosen for the investigation. In selected houses in Ružomberok, radon activity concentration rarely exceeded 400 Bq/m3 in a three month period, in this case the inhabitants were advised how to lower radon exposure. No house was found with an annual radon activity concentration of more than 400 Bq/m3.
Paulina Pyka, Krzysztof Szopa and Aleksandra Gawęda
Large crystals of kyanite (<15 cm in size) occur in quartz segregations in Paleozoic gneissses on Baranec Mt., Western Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia. Blue kyanite crystals coexist with quartz and plagioclase. The kyanite contains inclusions of apatite, monazite. gamet, rutile and biotite and overgrowths of retrograde sillimanite. muscovite and biotite. The kyanite crystals are the largest found up to now in the Tatra crystalline massif or in the other Western Carpathians crystalline cores. Kyanite. with the co-existing mineral assemblage, is indicative of a HP stage duiing Hercynian metamorphism of the Western Tatra Mountains.
Juraj Galko, Christo Nikolov, Andrej Kunca, Jozef Vakula, Andrej Gubka, Milan Zúbrik, Slavomír Rell and Bohdan Konôpka
Six types of pheromone traps were tested between 2012 and 2014 in the High Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia. Traps were baited with lures for attracting the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Among the tested traps, four types are commercial products; Theysohn (T-trap), Ecotrap (E-trap), Lindgren funnel trap (L-trap), BEKA trap (B-trap) and two are our newly developed models; Funnel trap (P-trap) and Cross trap (K-trap). The traps were set up on ten selected sites and tested during three growing seasons (2012, 2013 and 2014). The newly developed models were compared to the commercially available models for trapping efficiency of target pest, easy to use and impact on non-target insect species. We found that the best commercially available model is the L-trap, however the bottom of L-trap is considered too shallow resulting in an accumulation of rainwater that increases the traps attractiveness for Silphids. In our experiment, the newly developed models; P-trap and K-trap performed better compared to commercially used models. P-trap caught 28% more I. typographus and K-trap caught 57% more beetles compared to T-trap in 2014. There are additional advantages of the newly developed traps such as easy handling, good rainwater drainage, higher collection container volume, and scale marking within the collection container. The results of this study have encouraged us to patent P-trap and K-trap as utility models.
Andrej Kunca, Milan Zúbrik, Juraj Galko, Jozef Vakula, Roman Leontovyč, Bohdan Konôpka, Christo Nikolov, Andrej Gubka, Valéria Longauerová, Miriam Maľová, Peter Kaštier and Slavomír Rell
Salvage felling is one of the indicators of the forest health quality and stability. Most of the European Union countries monitor forest harmful agents, which account for salvage felling, in order to see trends or functionality between factors and to be able to predict their development. The systematic evidence of forest harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in Slovakia started at the Forest Research Institute in Zvolen in 1960. The paper focuses on the occurrence of the most relevant harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in the Slovak forests over the last decade. Within the 10 years period (2004–2013) salvage felling in Slovakia reached 42.31 mil. m3 of wood, which was 53.2% of the total felling. Wind and European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus damaged 78.4% of salvage wood, i.e. they were the most important pest agents. Norway spruce (Picea abies) was the most frequently damaged tree species that represented the amount of 35.6 mil. m3 of wood (81.2% of total volume of salvage felling). As Norway spruce grows mostly in mountains, these regions of Central and Northern Slovakia were most affected. At the damaged localities new forests were prevailingly established with regard to suitable ecological conditions for trees, climate change scenarios and if possible, natural regeneration has been preferred. These approaches in forest stand regeneration together with silvicultural and control measures are assumed to gradually decrease the amount of salvage felling over long term perspective.
Zbigniew M. Bochenski, Teresa Tomek and Ewa Swidnicka
We describe an articulated partial leg of an Oligocene bird. It is one of the smallest avian fossils ever recorded. Its slender and exceptionally short tarsometatarsus, hallux as long as the tarsometatarsus and stout moderately curved claws agree with stem-group Apodidae (swifts), stem-group Trochilidae (hummingbirds), and stem-group Upupidae/Phoeniculidae (hoopoes/woodhoopoes). Unfortunately, due to the poor preservation of the specimen its more precise affinities remain unresolved. The specimen differs in many details from all other tiny Palaeogene birds and therefore most probably it represents a new taxon but it is too fragmentary to describe it. It is just the twelfth avian fossil from the Oligocene marine deposits of the Outer Carpathians and Central Palaeogene Basin — a huge area that covers south-eastern Poland, north-eastern Czech Republic and northern Slovakia — and therefore it adds to our very limited knowledge on the avifauna of that region. The remains of land birds from Jamna Dolna and other sites of the region can be attributed to the general sea level fall at that time, which led to limitation of the connection with the open ocean and resulted in many shallow shoals, temporary islands and exposed dry land areas along the coast.
Dirofilariosis belongs to zoonotic vector-borne diseases with fastest spread into new areas caused by extreme weather and seasonal changes in climate. In Slovakia, Dirofilaria spp. parasites affect more than 30 % of dogs living in endemic regions in southern parts of territory, however, data on wildlife circulation of this parasite are still scarce. In order to clarify the role of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as the most abundant canid species in Europe in maintaining the parasite in natural foci, an initial survey of dirofilariosis in this carnivore species was conducted in Slovakia. The samples of 183 red foxes hunted in 2007 - 2009 in regions of South-Eastern and Northern Slovakia with different geographical and climate characteristics were examined by means of PCR method using specific D. repens, D. immitis and Acantocheilonema recognitum primers. The DNA was isolated from spleen samples using commercial kit and PCR approach was used for diagnostics. After amplification selected products were purified and sequenced to elucidate any homologies with previously deposited sequences in Gen Bank. The results showed 105 out of 183 examined specimens (57.4 %) being infected, with great regional differences in prevalence. Phylogenetic relationships within Dirofilaria species indicate that obtained isolates belong to D. repens. The results confirmed the role of red foxes as the reservoir of parasite. Herein, epidemiological factors that may be coherent with the Dirofilaria parasites distribution and circulation in wildlife and implications in risk assessment and prevention for domestic animals and human are discussed.
This work was focused on the characterization of novel isolate of Trichoderma atroviride O1, found in the forest around the village of Zázrivá (the Northern Slovakia, region Orava). The isolate was identified by sequencing its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA. T. atroviride O1 stimulated the development of lateral roots of model plant Lepidium sativum. Simultaneously, the isolate has proved its high mycoparasitic potential as it displayed the ability to attack colonies of phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Fusarium culmorum, Botrytis cinerea). This isolate produced secondary metabolites, which were isolated and tested for the antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of these bacteria was suppressed to 10 % and 40 %, respectively. The suppression of the growth of two Candida species was also strong (10 % growth). However, growth parameters of three phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium culmorum) were less affected (75 % growth in comparison with the control). Attempts were made to characterize secondary metabolites isolated from T. atroviride O1. Known peptaibols, 20—21 amino acid long, but also shorter peptides, were detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Thus, this study demonstrates the plant growth promotion, strong mycoparasitic potential and antimicrobial activity of the isolate T. atroviride O1, which could be in part ascribed to the production of secondary metabolites. This isolate does have a potential in the biocontrol in eco-farming. Further study, particularly, the identification of produced secondary metabolites, is needed.
Jana Némethová, Alena Dubcová, Ľudmila Nagyová and Hilda Kramáreková
The paper points at the origin and development of ecological farming in Slovakia from 1991 to 2015. As the positive aspect of this period can be considered the increasing area of ecologically farmed agricultural land, as well as increasing number of farmers and a slight increase in the number of processors of ecological production. The increased interest of farmers in ecological farming on land occurred mainly after Slovakia's accession to the EU. The next part of the paper is dedicated to the regional disparities in ecological production at NUTS III (Slovak regions). To analyze spatial disparities at the regional level, we used the most widely applied statistical methods - standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The largest localization of ecological production is in northern Slovakia - in Žilina and Prešov region, in central Slovakia in Banská Bystrica region. In these regions, there are higher acreage of ecological farmland. Despite the slight increase of processors of ecological produce, they still lack in Slovakia. Processors of ecological products operate mainly in the regions of western and eastern Slovakia and north of the country. With the lack of ecological production, there is relatively underdeveloped distribution of products of ecological production and its lower consumption in the domestic market. Offers of bio-products is relatively low and weak competitive environment does not create the pressure to still reduce still high prices of ecological production.