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Protandry, or the arrival of males prior to females to the breeding grounds is a widespread phenomenon in migratory birds though rarely examined in related species in which its manifestation can vary. European Stonechat and Whinchat are such a pair studied with use of individual marking in North-Eastern Ukraine in 1993–2008. An apparent protandry was found in Whinchat but not in European Stonechat. The difference between the arrival dates of male and female Whinchats (6 days) was significant. The mean time span between territory establishment by a male and subsequent pair formation was 10.6 days. By contrast, 38% of the first records of European Stonechats in spring were those of already paired birds and the difference between arrival dates of both sexes was non-significant. The proximate cause of protandry in Whinchat and its’ absence in European Stonechat seems to be the differences (or the lack thereof) in the onset of spring migration. The time lapse between the start of migration of male and female Whinchats originates at African wintering grounds and is maintained en route. The absence of the protandry in European Stonechat is probably a relict behaviour from the residency. The protandry in migratory populations of this species is yet to be developed.


The Brandt’s Bat (Myotis brandtii Eversmann, 1845) is one of the rarest bat species in Ukraine. There are only a few known locations of this species in summer and less known hibernacula in the whole country. Moreover, for territory of the north-eastern Ukraine are known only two underground bat hibernation sites with aggregation more than several tens of individuals. We undertook population surveys of winter aggregations in newly discovered and dug up abandoned sandstone mines in the Chuguev district of the Kharkiv Region (49°54′ N, 36°43′ E) from 2007 through 2015. We also surveyed summer bat assemblages in the forests surrounding these mines in 2012. The mines’ microclimate conditions were as follows: temperature +6 °C - +10 °C and humidity 60-80 %. M. brandtii, M. daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817) and Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758) hibernate in the mines; the first species is most abundant by number of individuals. In midsummer 9 bat species were recorded including the three previously mentioned. M. daubentonii and P. auritus breed in surrounding forest, but M. brandtii does not. One recaptured individual of M. brandtii was minimum 6 years old, providing us the first recorded information on longevity of this species for Ukraine. The total number of bats hibernating in these mines is estimated to be up to 100 individuals; a hibernaculum with several tens of M. brandtii could be classified as more numerous for this species in Ukraine. For this reason, the system of mines in the Kharkiv region needs species protection status and an action plan for monitoring and management.

. Vlaschenko, A. S., Naglov, A. V. 2006. Bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernation in artifi cial caves of north-eastern Ukraine. Journal of V. N. Karazin National University. Series: biology, 3 (729), 122-133 [In Russian with English summary]. Vlaschenko, A. S. 2006. Biogeocenological role of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) on the South part of foreststeppe zone. Ph. D. thesis, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov, 1-234 [In Russian]. Vlaschenko, A. S. 2008. Sex ratio in four bats species in North-Eastern Ukraine. Journal of V. N. Karazin National University

and Protection of Birds of the Seversky Donets River Basin” (pp. 51−57). Donetsk. Chaplygina, A.B. (2009). Patterns of nest location of thrushes of the genus Turdus in transformed landscapes of North-East Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Berkut , 18(1−2), 135−142. Chaplygina, A.B., Gramma, V.N., Bondarets, D.I. & Savynska N.O. (2015). Arthropods in a trophic-coenosis structure of the collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology , 23(1), 74−85. DOI: 10


Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815), have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758). This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220). The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424). The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine) in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.


The skull fragment of muskox Ovibos moschatus (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) obtained from Chasha River bed alluvium near the Buryn (Sumy Region, North-Eastern Ukraine) is described here in detail. It belongs to a young male, and presumably dates back to Late Pleistocene. This new find slightly extends the known Ukrainian range of the species to the east. Taxonomic attribution of extinct muskox and dispersal of Ovibos moschatus within the territory of Ukraine during the Late Pleistocene are also discussed in the paper.


This paper presents the results of research on ephemerophytes of the alien portion of the flora of the Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (north-eastern Ukraine). It is a detailed study of this group of plants, conducted for the first time in the Ukraine. The checklist of alien vascular plants contains 345 species, of which 27 species are ephemerophytes (or 8%): Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, Papaver albiflorum, Urtica cannabina, Gypsophila perfoliata, Atriplex micrantha, Chenopodium × preissmannii, Ch. × thellungii, Rumex longifolius, Sisymbrium polymorphum, Euphorbia humifusa, Malus sylvestris, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astrodaucus orientalis, Datura tatula, Solanum schultesii, Lindernia procumbens, Melampyrum cristatum, Helianthus annuus, Petasites spurius, Xanthium ripicola × Xanthium albinum, Echinochloa tzvelevii, Panicum capillare, Panicum capillare L. subsp. barvipulvinatum, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria ×ambigua, Sorghum halepense. The basis of this work is original data of the author obtained during field studies, and a critical study of the literature, archival, cartographic materials and herbarium collections, and the use of classical methods of botanical classification. Complex research of this group of plants was conducted and as a result of these investigations the following characteristics were established: a predominance of kenophytes of Mediterranean origin in this group, species of arid areas, cosmopolitan species with a diffuse type of space structure, therophytes, herbaceous monocarpic plants, mesotrophes, heliophytes and xeromesophytes, with an insignificant degree of impact on native plant communities and with a limited distribution within the study region. The combination of these results indicates that ephemerophytes comprise a temporary, unstable component of the flora of this region of the Ukraine. The paper provides maps of the distribution of these 27 species.

. Studia Biologica, 10 (1), 99-110 [In Ukrainian]. Chaplygina, A. B., Gramma, V. M., Bondarecz, D. I., Savynska, N. O. 2015. Arthropods in a trophic-cenosis structure of the collared fl ycatcher consortia in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine. Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, Ecology, 23 (1), 74-85 [In Ukrainian]. Efremova, G. A., Tchaikovsky, A. I. 2004. Biocenotic relations of parasitocenoses of the rook’s nests. Actual problems of ecology. Materials of the I Intern. Scien. Conf., 220-223[In Russian]. Golubets, M. А., 2000

de l’Academie des Sciences d’Ukraine 5-6: 183-199. [In Ukrainian]. Ramensky, L. G. 1971: Problemi i metodi izucheniya rastitelnogo pokrova (Problems and methods of a study of vegetation cover). Nauka, Leningrad, 336 pp. [In Russian]. Ronkin, V. I. & Savchenko, G. A. 2004: Effect of cattle grazing on habitats for the steppe marmot (Marmota bobak) in north-eastern Ukraine. Vestnik zoologii 38 (1): 55-60. Ronkin, V., Savchenko, G. & Tokarsky, V. 2009: The place of the steppe marmot in steppe ecosystems of Ukraine: an historical approach. Ethology Ecology & Evolution

. - Ukrainian : Тищенко В. М., Годлевська О. В. Перші знахідки Vespertilio murinus та Nyctalus noctula (Chiroptera) на зимівлі у м. Києві. Vlaschenko, A. S. Sex ratio in four bat species in north-eastern Ukraine // Journal of V. N. Karazin’s National University. Ser. biology. - 2008. - N 814, is. 7. - P. 65-73. - Russian : Влащенко А. С. Соотношение полов у четырех видов рукокрылых на северо-востоке Украины. Wilkinson, G. S, McCracken, G. F. Bats and balls: sexual selection and sperm competition in the Chiroptera // Bat ecology / Eds T. H. Kunz, M. B. Fenton. - Chicago, IL