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The goal of this work is to present the valorisation of national park based on the criteria resulting from standard data forms (SDF). The analysis covered a number of areas protected under the Birds Directive and Habitats Directive with the A, B or C category. Habitats and species marked as D in the SDF are not protected in the Nature 2000 areas, which is why they were not taken into account in the analysis. The presented characteristics made it possible to determine the hierarchy of national parks amongst the most valuable natural objects that deserve protection in the first place and also to verify the views on most valuable areas.


The current study focuses on the demographic profile research of Nature 2000 sites belonging to 28 administrative entities located in Bihor County, in northwestern Romania. For the purposes of this study, out of the 74 local administrative units (LAUs) holding protected areas of the type Nature 2000 while only sites that cover over 40% of the administrative entities’ area were taken into account. Starting from the interrelation of the contact between human communities and local ecosystems, the research sought to determine the interdependence level between the local residents’ lifestyle and the biodiversity-related maintenance/preservation of these protected areas.

Based on the referenced statistics, more demographic indicators were calculated (population decrement, population density, structure by age, dependency index, active population and structure by industry) and basic indicators of pressure on the environment (naturality index, human pressure through land use and forest area per capita). Each of these factors are meant to reveal how man cohabitates with nature in a balanced or disrupted manner according to the study results. Thus, considering the 28 LAUs from case to case, areas where environmental health tends to insecurity were identified, but there are cases in which it is satisfactory thanks to the existence of massive woodlands over wide areas, while also being due to a considerable demographic decrement.

and rocky vegetation of the loess Volyn). Rocznik Wołyński. Równe, t. VIII: 26-65. Pawlaczyk P., Jermaczyk A. 2004. Natura 2000 - narzędzie ochrony przyrody (Nature 2000 - an instrument of nature conservation). Planowanie ochrony obszarów Natura 2000. WWF Polska, Warszawa, 1-76. Piękoś-Mirkowa H., Mirek Z. 2003. Flora Polski. Atlas roślin chronionych (Flora of Poland. Atlas of protected plants). Multico Ofic. Wyd., Warszawa, 1-584. Poznańska Z. 1988. Pierwsze udane próby podsiewania nasion dziewięćsiłu popłocholistnego Carlina onopordifolia na nowych stanowiskach


The present study deals with the estimation of the evolution tendency of the environmental stage of a protected habitat with predominant forest vegetation, during a short period of time, using techniques specific to remote sensing. Therefore, two important spectral indexes were tested while assessing the health of the forest ecosystems: i.e. the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI). The period of time taken into consideration for the study was, 2013 - 2019, having used medium resolution satellite photos, Landsat 8 OLI, having initially undergone standard pre-processing operations (resize data, radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction). The satellite images modified according to the Top of Atmosphere Reflectance and corrected topographically resulted into getting values for the two before mentioned indexes. The quantity-spatial results obtained, correlated to the monthly values of the precipitations processed in order to obtain the SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index), mostly reveal, in what SIPI and also NDVI are concerned, a slight decrease in the quality of the forest on the analysed area in the sense that the vegetation stress is increased under meteorological factors, expressed differently depending on the morphometric and pedological parameters of the habitat.


Between 2009 and 2013, research was conducted in the commune offices for the Podlaskie voivodeship which have large areas of protected Natura 2000 sites. The research is repeated every few years and widened to include new communes. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of the protected areas on the economic conditions of the communes. It is widely assumed that protected areas generate income for communes, however the communes claim that they incur large additional costs. The surveyed communes were critical of obligatory legal requirements in relation to the protected areas. It was argued that there are problems with obtaining natural resources and with the establishment of new summer resorts, residential and farm buildings and infrastructure; as well as the use and management of the site. The communes’ benefits incidental to the ownership of the protected area are not clear. As part of the benefits, the protected areas offer an opportunity for tourism development. According to the communes, protected areas generate losses in which the estimated losses are several times higher than the potential income. Studies indicate that the conservation cost factor should be considered in terms of financing the communes from the state budget.


The Bieszczady mountains are one of the ranges of the Polish Carpathians. Their natural and cultural amenities attract thousands of Polish and international tourists each year. Despite many protected zones existing in this area (e.g. Bieszczadzki National Park, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Nature 2000 areas), the Bieszczady mountains face various environmental and social problems which have arisen from their dynamic but often chaotic tourism development. The lack of a common vision of long-term tourism development (on communal and regional levels) is one of the main challenging issues which public and private bodies are confronted with. The paper presents the results of the implementation of an innovative approach, i.e. the St. Gallen Model for Destination Management (SGDM), in selected Bieszczady communes. This method offers a clear advantage for key destination actors by allowing them to enter a process of holistic destination management. The article is the first attempt at SGDM application in Poland.


The early-medieval earthwork “Dzięcioły”, of the area of 8 ha, is situated in the Sarnaki forest district (Mazovia Province). The whole object is overgrown by deciduous forest vegetation. Two well-preserved subassociations of oak-hornbeam forest - Tilio-Carpinetum typicum and T.-C. corydaletosum, protected by Nature 2000 Directive, were identified. The flora of the earthwork includes 184 vascular plant species, of which 5 are protected and 6 regionally threatened. Species characteristic of deciduous forests and forest edge communities (63.6%) dominate over meadow (16.3%) and aquatic and rush plants (13.6%). The share of synanthropic species is still very low (6.0%). Due to large archaeological and natural values, spatial protection of the earthwork as a nature reserve, was suggested

,et al.Up-regulation of the Ire 1- mediated signaling molecule,Bip,in ischemic rat brain.Neuroreport,2001,12(18):4023-4028. 5 Hayashi T,Saito A,Okuno S,et al.Induction of GRP78 by ischemic preeonditioning reticulum strss and prevents delayed neuronal cell deal.Cereb Blood Flow Metab,2003,23(8):949-961. 6 Paschen W, Aufenberg C, Hotop S, et al. Transient cerebral ischemia activates processing of xbp1 messenger RNA indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress.Cereb Blood Flow Metab,2003,23(4):449-461. 7 Mehmet H.Caspases find a new place to hide.Nature,2000,403: 29-30.

REFERENCES B uszko J., N owacki J. 2000. The Lepidoptera of Poland. A Distributional Checklist. Polish Entomological Monographs, 1. Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne, Poznań. Buszko J. Nowacki J. 2000 The Lepidoptera of Poland. A Distributional Checklist. Polish Entomological Monographs, 1 Polskie Towarzystwo Entomologiczne Poznań K adej M., M alicki M., M alkiewicz A., S molis A., S uchan T., T arnawski D. 2014. Permanent protection of endangered habitats and butterflies in the Nature 2000 network in southwestern Poland. Stowarzyszenie Ekologiczne EKO

, Knight AW, Cahill PA. A yeast RAD54-GFP genotoxicity assay, is effective in identifying direct acting mutagens in addition to clastogens not detected by bacterial tests. Toxicol Sci 2003; 72 : 1106. Liu X, Kramer JA, Swaffield JC, Hu Y, Chai G, Wilson AGE. Development of a highthroughput yeast-based assay for detection of metabolically activated genotoxins. Mutat Res-Gen Tox En 2008; 653 : 63-9. Zhou B-BS, Elledge SJ. The DNA damage response: putting checkpoints in perspective. Nature 2000; 408 : 433-9. Sionov RV, Haupt Y. The cellular response to p53: the