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The paper attempts to present a comprehensive picture of the main characteristics of Romanian university-educated youths in their journey to employment. The persisting demographic decline and significant labor shortages point out to the importance of having an effective transition from school to work (as reflected in several Europe 2020 policy targets) so that youth and young adult cohorts are able to contribute to the Romanian economy to the full extent of their abilities. Analysis of the latest data available reveals that Romanian university graduates’ path to employment often involves a complete switch from study to work. Despite a lack of previous work experience, they enjoy high employment rates, relatively long job tenure that starts on, or shortly after, graduation, and have jobs that match their education. They also tend to be proactive in their job search and over 90% are not willing to change residence in order to start employment. Inactivity patterns that consider both work and education, and early leavers from education show significant fluctuations during the economic cycle. Results indicate the strong and weak areas with respect to labor market integration of youths and young adults, and can provide a starting point for policies to optimize their successful integration. It also points out to potential research areas to address key aspects of transitions from school to work that may clarify unsolved issues and guide effective policy interventions.
Ludzkiego. Raport podsumowujący pierwszą edycję badań realizowaną w 2010 roku /Human Capital Programme. Report on the first edition of the study conducted in 2010/ PARP 2011, www.bkl.parp.gov.pl, (accessed 20.10.2012). Strojek A. „NEETs - młodzież, która robi „nic” / NEETs - the youth who do nothing/, http://www.rynekpracy.pl/dla_mediow_1.php/wpis.165, (accessed 01.12.2012). Eurofound, Youth and work: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2011/40/en/2/EF1140EN.pdf(accessed 01.12.2012). Szafraniec K., Młodzi 2011 /The Youth 2011/: http://kprm.gov.pl/Mlodzi_2011_alfa
Utilisation of biomass is an important factor in reducing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG); at the same time, high efficiency of biomass combustion technologies is to be ensured to minimise the methane (CH4) emission thus achieving the most efficient reduction in the total GHG emission. The authors analyse the GHG emission breakdown in Latvia among the sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), and, in the context of emission reduction, evaluate the energy supply in the Latvian household sector, the types of combustion technologies and the used fuels. The trend is considered for the CH4 emission factor during 1990-2010 in the household sector of EU countries, and the numerical index is calculated which illustrates decoupling the consumption of biomass fuel from CH4 emission. To evaluate the perspective of CH4 emission reduction in the Latvian household sector, two scenarios are investigated for efficiency improvement as related to the central heating equipment based on wood fuel.
References Alexe, I. (2016). Immigration on the labor market in Romania: youth and women, Association Novapolis- Centre of Analysis and Initiatives for Development, 11-12th April, pp 65-92. Assessment of the status and analysis of the profile of adolescents and young people who do not work, do not study or do not study (Oценка на състоянието и анализ на профила на подрастващите и младежите, които не работят, не учат и не се обучават) (2016)- UNICEF, available on https://www.unicef.bg/assets/Conferences/NEETs/NEETs__BG_Summary.pdf , Accessed on 12th December, 2017
European Union. AYLLÓN, S., GÁBOS, A. (2017): The interrelationships between the Europe 2020 poverty and social exclusion indicators. Social Indicators Research, 130(3): 1025–1049. BRADFORD, S., CULLEN, F. (2014): Youth policy in austerity Europe. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(sup1.): 1–4. CAMILLERI, M. A., CAMILLERI, A. (2016): Education and social cohesion for economic growth. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 19(5): 617–631. CARCILLO, S., FERNÁNDEZ, R., KÖNIGS, S., MINEA, A. (2015): NEET Youth in the aftermath of the crisis
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