Patricia Regina Santos, Anelise S. Nazari Formagio, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Maria Helena Sarragiotto and Tania Ueda-Nakamura
The effect of the alkaloid 1-(phenyl)-N’-(4-methoxybenzylidene)- 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carbohydrazide (PMC) on the poliovirus (PV) replication cycle in Vero cells was assayed by inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE) and inhibition of plaque forming units (PFU). Both methodologies suggested that the mode of action was avoidance of infection progression in the host cell. The compound was able to prevent CPE and PFU formation when the cells were pretreated with PMC for 24 h prior to PV infection. In addition, when the alkaloid was continuously maintained in the infected cultures, the spread of PV to adjacent cells was impaired. The pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylactic applications are possible situations in which an anti-PV drug might be used. Future studies are needed to elucidate the PMC mode of action and verify the feasibility of PMC use in vivo. No antipicornavirus agent is currently approved for clinical use
For a given integer
(k ≥ 2), we give here a class of finitely presented finite monoids of order n. Indeed the monoids Mon(π), where
As a result of this study we are able to classify a wide family of the k-generated p-monoids (finite monoids of order a power of a prime p). An interesting di erence between the center of finite p-groups and the center of finite p-monoids has been achieved as well. All of these monoids are regular and non-commutative.
The Baltic people of Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia gained recognition with their successful use of a cultural tool, singing folkloric songs, to protest collectively against their common Soviet oppressor in the summer of 1988, preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union. Rational-choice theorists have argued that large rebellious movements are paradoxical because the larger the number of potential revolutionaries, the greater the leadership, participation, and coordination problems they face (Olson, 1971; Tullock, 1974). This paper investigates Estonia’s Singing Revolution and illustrates how ethnic Estonians used their shared cultural beliefs and singing traditions as a tacit, informal institutional solution to overcome the collective-action problems with organizing and participating in mass singing protests against the Soviet regime. The paper goes further to extend the standard rational-choice framework and to include a more dynamic, entrepreneurial-institutional perspective on socio-cultural change by accounting for the role of cultural leaders as cultural entrepreneurs, a subset of institutional entrepreneurs. The success of Estonia’s Singing Revolution can be ultimately attributed to leadership in the form of cultural entrepreneurship going back to pre-Soviet Estonian times. The revived legacy of ancient shared beliefs, folkloric practices, and singing tradition represented the necessary social capital for the Estonian people to voice collectively shared preferences for political and economic governance during a window of constitutional opportunity. Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost, a policy aimed to improve Soviet formal institutions by fostering freedom of speech and political transparency, also provided a context propitious for the Singing Revolution because it lowered the perceived costs of participation in the rebellious singing and opened a window of opportunity for political change.
1. Schulz, I., Herrmann, M., Endler, I., Zalite, I., Speisser, B., Kreusser, J. Nano Si3N4 composites with improved tribological properties. Lubrication Science, 2009, vol. 21, pp. 69-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ls.72
2. Gogotsi, Yu. G. Particulate silicon nitride-based composites. J. Mater. Sci., 2000, vol. 29, pp. 2541-2556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00356803
3. Petzow, G., Hermann, M. Silicon nitride ceramics. Structure and Bonding. Springer, Berlin, 2002, vol. 102, pp. 71-72.
Amir Jalilian, Nima Rostampour, Pejman Rowshanfarzad, Kamaleddin Shafaii, Mohsen Kamali-Dehghan and Mehdi Akhlaghi
J. S. Lewis, T. L. Sharp, R. Laforest, Y. Fujibayashi and M. J. Welch, Tumor uptake of copper-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone): effect of changes in tissue oxygenation, J. Nucl. Med. 42 (2001) 655-661.
F. Dehdashti, M. A. Mintun, J. S. Lewis, J. Bradley, R. Govindan, R. Laforest, M. J. Welch and B. A. Siegel, In vivo assessment of tumor hypoxia in lung cancer with 60 Cu-ATSM, Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imag. 30 (2003) 844-840.
A. R. Jalilian, M. Sabet, P
Corrosion inhibition performance of mild steel in nitric acid solution containing different concentration of anisalidine derivative Schiff bases viz. N- (4-nitro phenyl) p-anisalidine (SB1), N- (4-chloro phenyl) p-anisalidine (SB2), N- (4-phenyl) p-anisalidine (SB3), N- (4-methoxy phenyl) p-anisalidine (SB4), N- (4-hydroxy phenyl) p-anisalidine (SB5) has been investigated using mass loss, thermometric and potentiostate polarization technique. Inhibition efficiencies of Schiff bases have been evaluated at different acid strength. The inhibition efficiency was found larger than their parent amines. Inhibition efficiencies of synthesized Schiff bases increase with inhibitor concentration. Inhibition efficiency increases up to 98.32% with ansalidine derivative Schiff base.
Ameen Abu-Hashem, Mohamed El-Shehry and Farid Badria
, E. N. Amin and L. Ramadan, Synthesis of 2-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobenzo [ b ] thieno[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-4-y)thio]- N -(4-aryl-3-chloro-2-oxoazetidin-1-yl) acetamides and biochemical screening for radioprotective character, Egypt. J. Biotechnol. 4 (1998) 16-30; ref. Chem. Abstr. 132 (2000) 49937.
H. N. Hafez and A. B. A. El-Gazzar, Design and synthesis of 3-pyrazolyl-thiophene, thieno [2,3- d ] pyrimidines as new bioactive and pharmacological activities, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (2008) 5222-5227; DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008
Eman A. AbuHijleh, Omar A. AbuGhneim and Hasan Al-Ezeh
In this paper, we show that Qkn is a divisor graph, for n = 2, 3. For n ≥ 4, we show that Qkn is a divisor graph iff k ≥ n − 1. For folded-hypercube, we get FQn is a divisor graph when n is odd. But, if n ≥ 4 is even integer, then FQn is not a divisor graph. For n ≥ 5, we show that (FQn)k is not a divisor graph, where 2 ≤ k ≤ [n/2] − 1.
Taher Mehran, Dayer Mohammad Saaid, Jalali Tahmineh, Khakifirouz Sahar, Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh and Salehi-Vaziri Mostafa
, NY, USA) and P < 0.05 was considered significant.
A total of 881 hard ticks were collected from 141 sheep and goats in the present study. All ticks belonged to 3 genera including, Rhipicephalus (95.6%, n = 842), Hyalomma (4.1%, n = 36) and Haemaphysalis (0.4%, n = 4). The most frequently detected species was R. sanguineus (65.1%, n = 574), followed by R. bursa (29.3%, n = 258). The remaining ticks were as follows: R. sp (0.9%, n = 8,), Hy. anatolicum (1.6%, n = 14), Hy. asiaticum (1%, n = 9), Hy. dromedarii (0.68%, n = 6), Hy