In this paper, the nonlinear Thomas-Fermi equation for neutral atoms by using the fractional order of rational Chebyshev functions of the second kind (FRC2), (t, L), on an unbounded domain is solved, where L is an arbitrary parameter. Boyd (Chebyshev and Fourier Spectral Methods, 2ed, 2000) has presented a method for calculating the optimal approximate amount of L and we have used the same method for calculating the amount of L. With the aid of quasilinearization and FRC2 collocation methods, the equation is converted to a sequence of linear algebraic equations. An excellent approximation solution of y(t), y′ (t), and y ′ (0) is obtained.
Hukou registration is an instrument to control nonplanned population and capital movements, which the Chinese Communist Party has been exploiting extensively since the 1950s. It requires that each Chinese citizen be classified as either an agricultural or nonagricultural hukou inheritor and be distinguished by their location with respect to an administrative unit. Hukou distribution used to be entirely determined by birth, but nowadays, Chinese citizens can self-select their hukou status based on their ability that causes selection bias in conventional wage decomposition by hukou types. To avoid this bias, I estimated hukou-based earning discrimination by matching Chinese individuals based on a rich set of individual-, family-, and society-level characteristics. By deploying a recent nationally representative dataset, this paper finds that significant earning discriminations exist against agricultural hukou people. I further investigated the impact of hukou adoption within work ownership, work and employer types, and labor contract conditions. I argue that earning difference by hukou is not due to rural–urban segregations; rather, it is systematic and institutionally enforced. This is because, contrary to self-employment and no labor contract conditions, discrimination exists only when others employ them and where a labor contract condition is enforced. Moreover, they face discrimination only when they work for the Chinese government, not when they work for private firms, and they face higher discrimination in nonagriculture-related professions compared to agriculture-related professions.
Based on the concept of Informational Cities, which are the highly developed prototypical cities of the 21st century, we conducted a regional comparison of four Japanese cities in terms of their “cityness” and “informativeness”. The purpose of our articles is to specify the theoretical framework for measuring the informativeness and cityness level of any desired city, to quantify the chosen indicators in order to compare the investigated cities, and finally, to conclude what is their advancement level in terms of a modern city of the knowledge society. Our methodology is based on a new approach to measure the position of a city in a national or a global scale, originating from information science and its indicators of the knowledge society. It includes such procedures as desktop research and bibliometrics, ethnographic field study, or grounded theory method. The investigated aspects under the notion of the informativeness level are the distinct labour market and mix of companies located in the city (concerned with creative, knowledge and information economy), as well as the progressive e-governance and advanced e-government. The notion of cityness level oscillates around the concept of space of flows in the city, including the flow of money, power, information, and human capital. In order to make our model practical and grounded on available evidence, we have chosen four Japanese cities to undergo the process. Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka and Kyoto are big and economically significant Japanese metropolises. However, our results show that they differ from each other regarding many important aspects. We were able to quantify their performances and create a ranking. The limitation of our approach appears to be the strict quantification method that makes the cityness and informativeness levels of the cities dependent on other cities’ performances, and that does not precisely reflect the actual dimension of the differences between them. Hence, in the future work we will develop a more flexible and independent approach, enabling us to make more accurate statements on cities’ advancement unregarded the advancement level of the other metropolises.
consecutive patients who came for their regular follow-up visits to the Outpatient Clinics of the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana (IOL) or the University Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery (ORL), University Medical Center Ljubljana during the period October – December 2017 and were willing to participate were included in the study. Questionnaires The patients completed Slovenian translation of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire, and the “Swallowing Disorders after Head and Neck Cancer Treatment” questionnaire. The first one evaluates the impact of
365 376  Bjordal K, de Graeff A, Fayers PM, Hammerlid E, van Pottelsberghe C, Curran D, et al. A 12 country field study of the EORTC QLQ –C30 (version 3.0) and the head and neck cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) in head and neck patients. Eur J Cancer 2000;36:1796-1807. Bjordal K de Graeff A Fayers PM Hammerlid E van Pottelsberghe C Curran D A 12 country field study of the EORTC QLQ –C30 (version 3.0) and the head and neck cancer specific module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) in head and neck patients Eur J Cancer 2000 36 1796 1807  Singer S, Araujo C, ArrarasJI
diffusivity were lower in the perilesional NAWM compared to contralesional white matter, while the mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in the perilesional NAWM. Table 1 Results from analysis of perilesional and contralesional normal-appearing white matter Diffusion histogram parameter Perilesional NAWM Contralesional NAWM p Mean (SD) (n = 35) Mean (SD) (n = 35) Axial diffusivity 1.26 (0.14) 1.38 (0.13) 0.000182 Radial diffusivity 0.67 (0.10) 0.53 (0.06) 0.000001 Fractional anisotropy 0.40 (0.11) 0.55 (0.09) < 0.000000 Axial kurtosis 0.76 (0.07) 0.73 (0.08) 0
The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate specific strategies to deconstruct dichotomous, hierarchical, and linear thinking styles and to develop holistic thinking. Developing holistic thinking is the foundation of increasing intercultural competencies for students, faculty, managers, and CEOs. Holistic thinking style allows us to view the world from both Western (linear) and Eastern (non-linear) perspectives. Participants were 35 students (23 American and 12 South Korean students) in an intercultural competence course at a State College in the US. The study found that it is possible for Westerns to increase non-linearity (holistic thinking) by completing specific repetitious reflective writing on a regular basis without censoring. Limitations of the study were the small sample size (N=35) and the short duration (3 months).
The purpose of this study was to compare the serve speed and motor coordination of elite and club level junior tennis players aged 11-14 years. Participants (n=35) were assigned to one of the two groups according to their experience, weekly training volume and competition level. Serve speed was assessed with a sports radar gun. Motor coordination was evaluated by means of the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The main results revealed that serve speed and motor coordination performance levels of the elite group were significantly higher than those of the club group. This study emphasized the importance of early participation and training intensity, which can play an important role in enhancement of serve speed and motor coordination.
Introduction: Exercise-induced desaturation is a common finding in patients with moderate and severe COPD. It is an important marker in the course of disease that has a prognostic value for mortality risk.
Aim: To monitor over time COPD patients with and without desaturation during 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and to assess the stability of that phenomenon.
Materials and methods: A 6MWT was administered to 70 patients with COPD which ranged in severity from stage 2A to stage 4D (GOLD 2011); the patients had a mean age of 64.5±10.1, mean pack-years - 38.8±21, FEV1% = 46.4%±15.7%, FVC% = 73.7%±1.3%, MRC = 2.31±0.84, CAT = 20.8±6.6. Oxygen saturation was monitored during the test; indications for desaturation were a decrease of SpO2 by ≥4% and a fall in SpO2 to ≤88% for at least 3 min. The patients were followed-up for mean 40.9±22.3 months and tests were repeated.
Results: Patients were divided into two groups based on the decrease in SpO2: Group A included patients with desaturation (n=35) and Group B – patients with no desaturation (n=35). In 66 of the patients the desaturation profile was stable over time. Only two patients, who did not desaturated at baseline, experienced desaturation in the follow-up 6MWT and another two patients, who desaturated at baseline, did not have it later in the follow-up.
Conclusion: Desaturation is a phenomenon that is persistent over time. Based on the results, it could be concluded that exercise-induced desaturation is a major marker of a particular COPD phenotype.
The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.