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). Vol. 2.1.4. Geoscientific Model Development , 8 , 1991–2007. Coroiu, I., Kryštufek, B., Vohralík, V. 2016. Mus spicilegus . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T13984A544549. Elith, J., Phillips, S. J., Hastie, T., Dudík, M., Chee, Y. E., Yates, C. J. 2011. A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Diversity and Distributions , 11 (1), 43–57. Evstafiev, I. 2015. Results of a thirty-year study of small mammals of Crimea. Part 1. Introduction, composition of fauna, home ranges


The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) was chosen as the bird of the year in Hungary by BirdLife Hungary in 2020 to pay more attention to this species. In the present study, we analysed the data collected on the food, changes in the population and the use of the roosting sites of the owls wintering Southeast-Hungary. A total of 4,683 pellets were collected in four winter seasons between 2016 and 2020, of which 5,265 prey animals were identified. We counted the individuals roosting in the winter roosting sites, and from their maximum number we estimated the local population change of the species as well as the success of the breeding. For this, we also used roadkill data from the nearby town, Battonya.

The diet of Long-eared Owls in the study area was similar to that observed in other parts of the Carpathian Basin. The smaller differences were mainly due to the different geographical distribution of different prey species. We also identified some species previously having no or very few data, thus we confirmed their stable presence in the area. Different weather factors within the season did not effect owls’ diet. The most varied diet was found in the warmest, least snowy winter. Comparing the feeding data with the data from the 1960s and 1970s, it can be seen that the proportion of preys changed significantly. The proportion of House/Steppe Mice decreased by an order of magnitude, while that of rats increased by the same amount over time. The most likely reasons for this may be changes in agricultural cultivation or local demographic conditions (depopulation). In the 2018/19 season, the proportion of Common Vole in the pellets was much higher than in any other years, suggesting this year’s gradation of the species. The pellets collected in different roosting sites close to each other typically had the same proportions of prey animals.

The maximum number of birds observed at the roosting sites did not correlate with the weather of the given season, but was probably related to the effectiveness of the previous breeding season.

The population of the species decreased compared to the early 2000’s based on the number of roosting individuals. This may be due to a decline in crow populations. It should be noted, however, that according to both the roadkills in Battonya and the maximum number of the roosting individuals in Kevermes, this drastic decline came to a halt in 2010s.

): The first knowledge of winter ecology of the mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petényi, 1882) from Slovakia. Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 61: 79–86 [6] Cuéllar, C., Fenoy, S., Guillén, J. L. (1995): Crossreactions of sera from Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum infected mice with Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Ascaris suum antigens. Int. J. Parasitol., 25: 731–739 [7] de Savigny, D. H. (1975): In vitro maintenance of Toxocara canis larvae and a simple method for the production of Toxocara ES antigen for use in

, pp. 146–147. (in Hungarian with English Summary) Bihari, Z. 2007a Közönséges vakond Talpa europaea [Common Mole]. – In: Bihari, Z., Csorba, G. & Heltai, M. (eds.) Magyarország emlőseinek atlasza [Atlas of mammals in Hungary]. – Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 67–68. (in Hungarian with English Summary) Bihari, Z. 2007b Güzüegér Mus spicilegus [Steppe Mouse]. – In: Bihari, Z., Csorba, G. & Heltai, M. (eds.) Magyarország emlőseinek atlasza [Atlas of mammals in Hungary]. – Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 195–196. (in Hungarian with English Summary) Bihari, Z. 2007c Pirók

inarskaya N. P., V inarski M. V. 2010. Co-occurrence of ectoparasites on rodent hosts: null model analyses of data from three continents. Oikos 119: 120–128. M adej G. 2004. Rozwój zgrupowań roztoczy Mesostigmata (Arachnida, Acari) na nieużytkach poprzemysłowych [Development of communities of mesostigmatid mites (Arachnida, Acari) in areas of postindustrial wastelands]. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice (in Polish). M ašán P., S tanko M. 2005. Mesostigmatic mites (Acari) and fleas (Siphonaptera) associated with nests of mound-building mouse, Mus

. & F rynta D., 2000: Intraspecific behavioural interactions in Apodemus microps : a peaceful mouse? Acta Theriologica , 45 : 201–209. S uchomelová E., M unclinger P. & F rynta D., 1998: New evidence of pseudosexual behaviour and female aggression in mice: neutral cage interactions in Mus spicilegus and Mus spretus (Rodentia: Muridae). Folia Zoologica , 47 : 241–247. S vartberg K., 2005: A comparison of behaviour in test and in everyday life: evidence of three consistent boldness-related personality traits in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science , 91

. M., Bourbour, R. P. & Martinico, B. L. 2016. Agricultural land use, barn owl diet, and vertebrate pest control implications. – Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 223: 167–174. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.03.002 Kryštufek, B. & Macholán, M. 1998. Morphological differentiation in Mus spicilegus and the taxonomic status of mound–building mice from the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. – Journal of Zoology 245(2): 185–196. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1998.tb00086.x Leader, Z., Yom-Tov, Y. & Motro, U. 2010. Diet comparison between two sympatric owls – Tyto alba and Asio

(2): 145–152. DOI: 10.1007/BF00328733 Kreiderits, A., Gamauf, A., Krenn, H. W. & Sumasgutner, P. 2016. Investigating the influence of local weather conditions and alternative prey composition on the breeding performance of urban Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus . – Bird Study 63(3): 369–379. DOI: 10.1080/00063657.2016.1213791 Kryštufek, B. & Macholán, M. 1998. Morphological differentiation in Mus spicilegus and the taxonomic status of mound-building mice from the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. – Journal of Zoology 245(2): 185–196. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1998.tb

correspondence analysis of all our data from all studied regions to evaluate which species of animal or tick or material may carry F. tularensis more often ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 8 The result of correspondance analysis (CA) for all samples grouped by species or material type The closer the sample type name to the “positive” label, the higher the detection frequency of F. tularensis in that sample type. Axis 1 coordinates show the weighted distances between different species and groups, shown on a bed plot with dots. The other types of samples are Mus spicilegus, Crocidura