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) Hamilton, Alexander / John Jay / James Madison, The Federalist: On the New Constitution (New York: Williams & Whiting, 1810) Iustinianus Augustus, Digesta, edited by Paul Krüger and Theodor Mommsen, re-issued by J. Triantaphyllopoulos (reprint of the 3rd Ed. Berlin 1868) Vol I (Hildesheim: Weidmann, 1997) Lavater, Hans Conrad, Kriegsbüchlein: Das ist die Grundliche Anleitung zum Kriegswesen (Zurich: Bodmer, 1667) Lipsius, Iustus, De militia romana libri quinque: commentarius ad Polybium (Antwerp: Plantiniana, 1614) Lipsius, Iustus, Politicorum sive civilis doctrina

Works Cited Aziz, J. What are Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Units doing in Beirut? Lebanon pulse . “The Almonitor”, 2016. Web. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/08/lebanon-host-secret-meeting-iraq-pmus-western-diplomats.html . Balcells, L. Book review of proxy warriors: The Rise and Fall of State-Sponsored Militias – By Ariel Ahram. “Democracy and Security”, no. 8 (2012), pp. 406–414. Brancati, D. Can Federalism Stabilize Iraq? “The Washington Quarterly”, no. 27 (2004), pp. 7–21. Carey, S.C., Mitchell, N.J., & Lowe, W. States, the security

BIBLIOGRAPHY: LITERATURE Barańczak. (1975), Polska powieść milicyjna. Dominacja funkcji perswazyjnej a problemy gatunkowe [Polish “Militia novel”. Domination of the persuasive function and the problems of the genre] [in:] Stępień M. (ed.), „W kręgu literatury Polski Ludowej” [The literature of socialist Poland], Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków, p. 270-316. Eisler J. (2014), Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR [The Magnificent Seven. The First Secretaries of the Polish United Workers’ Party Central Committee], Wydawnictwo Czerwone i Czarne

arms reduction era, while Lithuania focused on the role of Russian militias and failed to take note of the changes in NATO’s nuclear stance. As NATO dusts off classical nuclear deterrent doctrines, posturing in the new geopolitical environment, the limited ability of Eastern European member states like Lithuania to adequately participate in these debates risks subsequently undermining the utility of the agreed concepts and eventually – chipping away at alliance unity. A Lithuanian case study offers insights into the security culture challenges common among NATO

Abstract

The chief objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the characteristics of new wars (described by scholars Mary Kaldor and Herfried Műnkler) are identified in the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Hence, the main argument is that the wars in D.R. Congo displayed most features of the new wars. Former Zaire/RDC was a weak state, completely unable to retain monopoly on the use of organized violence or to control its entire territory. Many armed groups and local militias had free vein in the east part and at some point they also controlled the north east and south east areas. Moreover, they gained autonomy and resorted to atrocities. The distinction between combatants and civilians was blurred. The locus of belligerence moved from the military sector to the societal one, thus also pinpointing to the need to reconceptualize security. Most attacks were carried out systematically and deliberately against groups of individuals, without discrimination between civilians and members of the militias. Child-soldiering was present and violence against women was prevailing systematically. Looting, raping, and killing was the bulk of the fighting and on several occasions civilians were used as human shields.

Abstract

The Palmach was the backbone of the pre-state Yishuv militias fighting for the independence of Israel. However, its impact went beyond the battlefield and still resonates in the cultural arena of modern day Israel. The exclusive elite group was a beacon of cultural as well as pedagogical values influencing the state, such as the Yediat ha-Aretz principle and the thereby interwoven Wanderlust. Therefore, I will try to show how Haim Hefer, the prominent Palmach poet and songwriter, prolonged this hiking tradition through the years of early statehood and implemented it in his famous song ha-Sela ha-Adom (“The Red Rock”) about the clandestine treks to the mythical Nabatean city of Petra in Jordan by Meir Har-Zion and many others. I will argue that the pop-cultural heritage of this particular song-although deeply rooted in the cultural matrix of the Yishuv-is a theme and topic of controversy to this day.

BIBLIOGRAPHY ARCHIVE MATERIALS The Archive of the Institute of National Remembrance in Gdańsk (AIPN Gdańsk) – Regional Domestic Affairs Office Gdańsk (WUSW Gdańsk). AIPN Gdańsk – Regional Citizens’ Militia Headquarters (KW MO Gdańsk). AIPN Gdańsk – EAGD. AIPN Gdańsk – Regional Court in Gdańsk (SW Gdańsk). AIPN BU – Capital Domestic Affairs Office (SUSW). AIPN Gdańsk – WUSW Gdańsk, sign. 0087/34, vol. 17. AIPN Gdańsk – KW MO Gdańsk, sign. 0046/258, Report on the “Mak” operation, May 30, 1972, f. 98; Report, July 11, 1972, f. 108. AIPN Gdańsk – WUSW Gdańsk, sign

BIBLIOGRAPHY: ARCHIVE MATERIALS The Archive of the Institute of National remembrance in Poznań (AIPN Poznań) AIPN Poznań, Criminal case files of Jan Poplewski and others, Military District Court (WSR) Poznań, sign. Sr 389/50, file sign. IPN Po 75/3086. AIPN Poznań, Investigative case files sign. 9070/III of Jan Poplewski and others, file sign. IPN Po 04/1479. AIPN Poznań, report no. 132, “C” bureau of Regional Headquarters of Citizens’ Militia (KWMO) in Poznań, the “Bi-Pi” illegal youth organization. Buk, Nowy Tomyśl county, report of retired captain of Citizens

aporte filológico.” Lexis 30(2):211-230. John, Elizabeth Ann Harper. 1975. Storms Brewed in Other Men’s Worlds . College Station: Texas A&M University. Kessell, John L. (Ed.). 1989. Remote Beyond Compare. Letters of don Diego de Vargas to His Family from New Spain and New Mexico 1675-1706 . Vargas series, 1. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Naylor, Thomas H. and Polzer, Charles W. 1986. The Presidio and Militia on the Northern Frontier of New Spain: A Documentary History . Tucson: University of Arizona. Wade, Maria F. 2003. The Native Americans of the

aporte filológico.” Lexis 30(2):211-230. John, Elizabeth Ann Harper. 1975. Storms Brewed in Other Men’s Worlds . College Station: Texas A&M University. Kessell, John L. (Ed.). 1989. Remote Beyond Compare. Letters of don Diego de Vargas to His Family from New Spain and New Mexico 1675-1706 . Vargas series, 1. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Naylor, Thomas H. and Polzer, Charles W. 1986. The Presidio and Militia on the Northern Frontier of New Spain: A Documentary History . Tucson: University of Arizona. Wade, Maria F. 2003. The Native Americans of the