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The role of plants in the economy of Tell Arbid, north-east Syria, in the Post-Akkadian Period and Middle Bronze Age

ABSTRACT

Archaeological fieldwork carried out at the Tell Arbid site in north-eastern Syria exposed settlement remains dating from the early 3rd millennium BC to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Recent excavations in Sector P, on the eastern slope of the site, revealed the existence of a significant occupation of the Post-Akkadian/ Early Jazirah V period and of levels dated to the Early and Classic Khabur Ware/Old Jazirah/Middle Bronze Age I-II periods. Cereal remains were dominated by grains and ear fragments of hulled two-rowed barley Hordeum distichon. Less numerous were wheats represented by emmer Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum, and macaroni wheat T. durum. The presence of bread wheat T. aestivum and six-rowed barley Hordeum vulgare could not be excluded. The two periods contained similar sets of cereals, but in the Post-Akkadian Period the percentage of hulled wheat remains was higher, while in the Middle Bronze Age (particularly in its younger phase) naked wheat slightly exceeded hulled wheats. Legumes were represented by only very few seeds of lentil Lens culinaris and bitter vetch Vicia ervilia. Diaspores of wild plants were very abundant, particularly those from the families of grasses and legumes. The considerable number of ear and culm fragments probably belonging to cereals as well as numerous seeds/fruits of wild plants suggests that the plant remains originated from fodder or animal dung or belonged to threshing waste. The presence of grass stems with nodes indicated that cereals were reaped low on the straw; occasional use of uprooting was suggested by the occurrence of basal culm fragments with traces of rootlets.

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Chronometry of Late Eneolithic and ‘Early Bronze’ Cultures in the Middle Dniester Area: Investigations of the Yampil Barrow Complex

Abstract

The paper discusses the 2010-2015 studies of the radiocarbon chronology of Podolia ‘barrow cultures’ on the left bank of the middle Dniester. The studies have relied on series of 14C dates for the Klembivka 1, Pidlisivka 1, Porohy 3A and Prydnistryanske 1 sites determined in Kyiv and Poznań laboratories. They are the first attempt to construct a regional (‘Yampil’) radiocarbon scale for ‘Early Bronze’ funerary rites (4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC) as practised by barrow builders - the communities of the Tripolye and Yamnaya cultures - and the secondary barrow users - the designers of necropolises located on barrows - belonging to the Catacomb, Babyno and Noua cultures.

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Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

[1] Bratchenko S, 2001. Donetskaya rannekatakombnaya kultura (Donetsk catacomb culture of the Early Stage). Vol. II. Lugansk, Shlyakh: 124pp (In Ukrainian). [2] Derzhavin VL, 1991. Stepnoye Stavropolie v epokhu rannei i srednei bronzi (The Steppe Stavropol area during the Early and the Middle Bronze Age). Moscow, Nauka: 186pp (In Russian). [3] Gak EI, 2005. Metalloobrabatyvayuschee proizvodstvo katakombnykh plemen Predkavkazya, Nizhnego Podonya i Severskogo Dontsa (Metal production of

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Economic Conditions in the Area Around the Sea of Galilee in Pre-Hellenistic Times

Archaeologist 75, 88-107. Horowitz, W. & Oshima, T. (2006). Cuneiform in Canaan. Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times, Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Kletter, R. & Zwickel, W. (2006). The Assyrian Building of Ayyelet ha-Shahar, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 122, 151-186. Maeir, A. (2010). In the Midst of the Jordan . The Jordan Valley during the Middle Bronze Age (circa 2000-1550 BCE). Archaeological and Historical Correlates (Österreichische Akademie der WIssenschaften

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Revisiting the Isolated Canaanite Temple of Tel Mevorakh

Settlement and Judges . Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Israel Exploration Society. Finkelstein, I. Middle Bronze Age ‘Fortifications’: A Reflection of Social Organization and Political Formations. Tel Aviv , 19:2 (1992). pp. 201-220. Finkelstein, I. (1996). The Territorial-Political System of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age. Ugarit-Forschungen. 28, pp. 221-255. Fleming, D.E. (1995). More Help from Syria: Introducing Emar to Biblical Study. The Biblical Archaeologist . 58(3), pp. 139-147. Fleming, D. (2003). The Zukru Festival (1.123). in: Hallo, W

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Yamnaya Culture Hoard of Metal Objects, Ivanivka, Lower Murafa: Autogenesis of ‘Dniester Copper/Bronze Metallurgy’

kompleksy cmentarzysk kurhanowych społeczności z III i z pierwszej połowy II tysiąclecia przed Chr. w okolicach Jampola, obwód winnicki. Z badań nad północno-zachodnią rubieżą osadnictwa społeczności kręgu kultur „wczesnobrązowych” strefy pontyjskiej. Badania z lat 1984-2014. Archaeologia Bimaris - Monografie 6, 45-204. Poznań. Klochko V.I. 1999 R adiocarbon chronology of the Early and Middle Bronze Age in the Middle Dnieper Region. The Mironivka barrows. Baltic-Pontic Studies 7: 163- -195. 2001 Weaponry of Societies of the Northern Pontic Culture Circle

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Trepanation and artificial cranial deformations in ancient Armenia

References Arakelyan B.N., 1976, Očerki po istorii iskysstva drevnej Armenii (VI v. do n.e. - III v. n.e.) [Outlines of the history of ancient Armenian art (VI c. BC - III c. AD)] , National Academy of Science of Armenia, Yerevan Ackerknecht E.H., 1947, Primitive Surgery , Am. Anthropol., 49 , 25-45 Açikkol A., I. Günay, E. Akpolat, E. Güleç, 2009, A Middle Bronze Age case of trephination from central Anatolia , Turkey, Bull. Int. Assoc. Paleodont., 3 , 28

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Eneolithic, Yamnaya and Noua Culture Cemeteries from the First Half of the 3Rd and the Middle of the 2Nd Millennium Bc, Porohy, Site 3A, Yampil Region, Vinnitsa Oblast: Archaeometric and Chronometric Description, Ritual and Taxonomic-Topogenetic Identification

and socio-cultural change in the third millenium BC. Carpathian Basin and neighbouring regions, 113-138. Budapest. Razumov S.M. 2011 Flint Artefacts of Northern Pontic Populations of the Early and Middle Bronze Age: 3200-1600 BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 16. Razumov S.M., Kośko A., Karnaukh E.G. 2012a Doslidzhennia kurhanu bilia s. Porohy Yampilskoho rayonu Vinyytskoy Oblasti (held in the archives of IA NANU). Kyiv. Razumov S.M., Lysenko S.D., Kośko A. 2012b Babinskoe pogrebenie s chashey u s. Porogi na Dnestre. In: O

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‘Yampil Inspirations’: A Study of the Dniester Cultural Contact Area at the Frontier of Pontic and Baltic Drainage Basins

the Pit Grave Culture (Late Fourth to Mid-Third Millennium BC)? In: V. Heyd, G. Kulcsar, V. Szeverenyi (Eds) Transitions to the Bronze Age. Interregional Interaction and Socio-Cultural Change in the Third Millennium BC Carpathian Basin and Neighbouring Regions, 113-138. Budapest. Razumov S.M. 2011 Flint Artefacts of Northern Pontic Populations of the Early and Middle Bronze Age: 3200-1600 BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 16. Subbotin L.V. 2000 Severo-Zapadnoe Prichernomore v epokhu ranney i sredney bronzy. Stratum Plus 2: 350

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Tripolye (Gordineşti Group), Yamnaya and Catacomb Culture Cemeteries, Prydnistryanske, Site 1, Yampil Region, Vinnitsa Oblast: An Archaeometric and Chronometric Description and a Taxonomic and Topogenetic Discussion

interaction and socio-cultural change in the third millenium BC. Carpathian Basin and neighbouring regions, 113-138. Budapest. Rassamakin Y.Y., Nikolova A. 2008 Carpathian Imports and Imitations in Context of the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age of the Black Sea Steppe Area. In: P.F. Biehl, Y.Y. Rassamakin (Eds) Import and Imitation in Archaeology, 51-87. Langenweisbach. Razumov S.M. 2011 Flint Artefacts of Northern Pontic Populations of the Early and Middle Bronze Age: 3200-1600 BC. Baltic-Pontic Studies 16. 2014 Komponent tradycji kultury

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