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/ 2005 . [5]. Angelova, K., Tashev, A., Complex analysis of the life forms of flowering plants in mount Chepan and their vertical ranges of spread in altitude, Trakija Journal of Sience , 2005 , 3 (6):32–35. [6]. Tashev, A., Angelova, K., Floristic Investigations in Mount Dragomanski Chepan (Western Balkan Range), Silva Balcanica , 2006 , 7 (1):95–102. [7]. Angelova, K., Tashev, A., Medicinal plants of Chepan Mountain, In: Fifth National Conference with International Participation “Ecology and Health, 2004” , 2004 , 471–476. [8]. Angelova, K., Taxa of

References 1. Aguilar-Støen M, Moe SR (2007) Medicinal plant conservation and management: distribution of wild and cultivated species in eight countries. Biodivers Conserv 16:1973-1981. 2. Ciulei I, Grigorescu E, Stănescu U (1993) Medicinal herbs, Phytochemistry and phytotherapy, vol. 2. Medical Publishing House, București 3. Coldea Gh (red). (2012) Les associations végétales de Roumanie, tom 2. Les associations herbacées anthropogène. Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca 4. Cristea V, Gafta D, Pedrotti F (2004) Phytosociology. Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca 5

), Ministry of Environment and Water, 2007 . [6]. NATURA 2000 Standard Data Form for Zlatni pyasatsi Protected Area (BG0000118), Ministry of Environment and Water, 2007 . [7]. Medicinal Plants Act, State Gazette number 29, 7 April 2000 , pp. 9–29. Last amended in State Gazette number 98, 26 November 2014. [8]. Kozhuharov, S. (ed.), Handbook for Vascular Plants in Bulgaria, Nauka i izkustvo Publishing House, Sofia, 1992 . [9]. Yordanov, D. (main ed.), Flora of PR Bulgaria, vol. 1–7, Publishing House of BAS, Sofia, 1963–1979 . [10]. Velchev, V. (ed.), Flora of PR

foods and medicinal plants: extraction, assessment and resources. Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18:96. doi: http://dx:doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010096 4. Adebayo JO, Krettli AU. Potential antimalarials from Nigerian plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 133:289-302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.024 5. World Health Organization. Malaria. http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria . Accessed 2 nd June 2019. 6. Dawaki S, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Ibrahim J, Atroosh WM, Abdulsalam AM, et al. Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria? Prevalence, risk

Antioxidants from Selected Medicinal Plants. Int J Food Prop . 2013 , 16, 1117-1126. [7] Ibrahim, M. A.; Ramadan, M.M. Cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines, phenol and flavonoid contents, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and antioxidant activity of Maerua pseudopetalosa (Gilg and Bened) De Wolf fractions. African J Pharm Pharmacol . 2019 , 13, 314-321. [8] Ouelbani, R.; Bensari, S.; Mouas, T. N.; Khelifi, D. Ethnobotanical investigations on plants used in folk medicine in the regions of Constantine and Mila (North-East of Algeria

Summary

Introduction: Many fungal species infect medicinal plants during their cultivation, causing great damage to the yield and decreasing the quality of raw material.

Objective: Due to the increase in contamination of raw material and the damage caused by pathogenic fungi, the main species of medicinal plants cultivated in Poland were subject to the investigation.

Methods: In 2012–2014, an experiment was conducted on eight medicinal plant species breeding nurseries grown in the field in Plewiska. The following species and cultivars were investigated: lemon balm, peppermint, St. John’s wort cv. ‘Topaz’, lovage cv. ‘Amor’, valerian cv. ‘Polka’, caraway cv. ‘Kończewicki’, sweet basil cv. ‘Wala’, marjoram cv. ‘Miraż’.

Results: Fourteen species of eleven genera of pathogenic fungi were isolated from the investigated medicinal plants: Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Septoria sp., Boeremia exiqua, Golovinomyces cichoracearum, Penicillium sp., Ramularia sp., and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The most severe infection was caused by Fusarium sp. and Botrytis cinerea. Also Cladosporium sp. (4 species), A. alternata and Septoria sp. (3 species) infected plant tissue. Leaves and stems were the most infected parts of the tested plants. Lemon balm, lovage and valerian were the most infected species, while marjoram was infected only with Fusarium sp.

Abstract

Medicinal plants and their extracts deserve special attention because of the important influence they have to human health. There are easily contaminated with metals during growth, development and processing. The aim of this study was to achieve the quantitative determination of metallic elements (Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb) in some medicinal plants including Mentha piperita L., Matricaria camomilla L., Hypericum perforatum L., Achillea millefolium L., Thymus serpillum, Capsella-bursa-pastoris L., Urtica dioica L., Primula veris L., Plantago major L., Taraxacum officinalis L., and their infusions, using flame absorption spectrometry. The highest concentration of metal in medicinal plants was that of iron 333.22 ± 35.18 mg Kg-1 and zinc 244.90 ± 32.13 mg Kg-1. Metal content in the powdered medicinal plants was in descending order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr; Pb and Cd were present in minor amounts. Analysis of plant infusions showed transfer of heavy metals during extraction procedure. Monitoring the content of mineral elements in medicinal plants and their boiling water extracts is of high importance because some heavy metals in large quantities in the body may have a toxic effect.

. Bauer, Plants secrete substances that mimic bacterial N-acyl homoserine lactone signal activities and affect population density-dependent behaviours in associated bacteria, Mol. Plant-Microbe Inter. 13 (2000) 637-648. 12. M. Manefield, T. B. Rasmussen, M. Henzter, J. B. Andersen, P. Steinberg, S. Kjelleberg and M. Givskov, Halogenated furanones inhibit quorum sensing through accelerated LuxR tumover, Microbiology 148 (2002) 1119-1127. 13. A. L. Adonizio, K. Downum, B. C. Bennett and K. Mathee, Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida, J

Abstract

Treatment of skin conditions with medicinal plants has been an ongoing human activity lasting over thousands of years. The use of specific plant species developed regionally, based on local flora. Commonly used medicinal plants for dermatological complaints are: Phlebodium aureum (L.) J. Sm., Ginkgo biloba L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Panax ginseng C.A.Mey., Allium cepa L., Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Capsicum annuum L., Berbe ris aquifolium Pursh, Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Podophyllum peltatum L.

The demand for complementary therapeutics is an emerging trend due to the awareness of potential side effects that synthetic drugs might cause. More scientific evidence and better documentation are needed before advising dermatologic patients on herbal medicinal treatment. Standardised extracts and formulations with proven clinical efficacy should be developed for this cause. Here provided review entails the use of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of frequent chronic skin diseases, such as vitiligo, alopecia, psoriasis and genital warts.

anti-allergic therapeutics. Process Biochem 2012; 47: 386-94. 8. Chakraborty P. Search for new molecules/prospects of drug discovery from herbal medicines. J Complement Med Alt Healthcare 2018; 5: 1-3. 9. Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure Appl Chem 2005; 77: 7-24. 10. Eddouks M, Chattopadhyay D, De Feo V, Cho WC. Medicinal plants in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 458274. 11. Koparde AA, Doijad RC, Magdum CS. (2019). Natural Products in drug discovery. In