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Over the past two decades an exponential growth of medical fuzzy expert systems has been observed. These systems address specific forms of medical and health problems resulting in differentiated models which are application dependent and may lack adaptability. This research proposes a generalized model encompassing major features in specialized existing fuzzy systems. Generalization modelling by design in which the major components of differentiated the system were identified and used as the components of the general model. The prototype shows that the proposed model allows medical experts to define fuzzy variables (rules base) for any medical application and users to enter symptoms (facts base) and ask their medical conditions from the designed generalised core inference engine. Further research may include adding more composition conditions, more combining techniques and more tests in several environments in order to check its precision, sensitivity and specificity.

applications – an overview. Pharmacologyonline. 2009; 2:926–32. Sankar V Ruckmani K Jailani S Ganesan KS Sharavanan SP. Niosome drug delivery system: advances and medical applications – an overview Pharmacologyonline. 2009 2 926 32 [13] Uchegbu IF, Florence AT. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): physical and pharmaceutical chemistry. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 1995; 58:1–55. Uchegbu IF Florence AT. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes): physical and pharmaceutical chemistry Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 1995 58 1 55 [14] Bouwstra JA, van Hal DA, Hofland HEJ, Junginger

. Kawasaki, Compression behavior of porous NiTi shape memory alloy, Acta Mater. 53 (2005) 337–343. [44] A. Dudek, M. Klimas, Composites based on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with an addition of inert ceramics and bioactive ceramics for medical applications fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS method), In: Materialwissenschaft Und Werkstofftechnik, 46 (3) (2015) 237-247. [45] W. M. R. M. Daoush, et. al., Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Ti-12Mo-6Zr Biomaterials Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering, In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions a

Techniques and Laboratory of Laser Techniques at Rzeszow University of Technology for their help. The research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. References [1] F. RENGIER, et al.: 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications. Int J CARS , 5 (2010)4, 335–341. RENGIER F. 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications Int J CARS 5 2010 4 335 341 [2] S. HILLERUP, R. JENSEN: Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg

problems that need to be resolved. In order to take full advantage of the profound patterns contained in the massive data, Big Data storage, mining, analysis, and related talent are essential. These technologies and talents will support research on health care Big Data and further serve a wide range of medical applications such as public health, medical care, and medical insurance, and many others. Acknowledgments ML wrote sections 1 and 2 , RW wrote sections 3 and 4 , LH wrote sections 5 and 6 , and PL wrote sections 7 and 8 . WL provided critical

( 18 , 20 , 21 , 22 - 23 ). Organic Nanocarriers Novel NCs are constantly in demand, and through vigorous BNT research, many have been discovered and are currently under investigation for their potential to enhance the delivery of conventional payloads or novel nanomedicines. A very common form of NCs are those made of natural polymers, which includes proteins and lipids. Polymeric NCs are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic which makes them ideal for medical application. Additionally, they can be highly function-alized in a manner that facilitates novel

., Bagaria S. J., Ilyas J.: Medical Applications of Rapid Prototyping – A New Horizon, Advanced Applications of Rapid Prototyping Technology in Modern Engineering, 1st ed., In Tech 2011:1-21. 17. Kruth J.P., Levy G., Klocke F., Childs T.H.C.: Consolidation phenomena in laser and powder-bed based layered manufacturing, Annals of the CIRP (2010), 56(2): 730-759 18. Das S.: Physical aspects of process control in selective laser sintering of metals, Advanced Engineering Materials (2003), 5: 701-711. 19. Childs T.H.C., Hauser C., Badrossamay M.: Selective laser sintering


In this paper, we have shown for the fi rst time the soft tissue response of novel silver/ poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene (Ag/PVA/Gr) and silver/poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/ graphene (Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr) nanocomposite hydrogels aimed for medical applications. These novel hydrogels were produced by in situ electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrices as described in our previously published works. Both Ag/PVA/Gr and Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr, as well as controls Ag/PVA, Ag/PVA/CHI and commercial Suprasorb©hydrogel discs, were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Implants with the surrounding tissue were dissected after post-implantation on days 7, 15, 30 and 60, and then processed for histological examination. The tissue irritation index (TIrI) score, according to ISO 10993-6, 2007, as well as the number of leukocytes in the peri-implant zone and connective tissue capsule thickness were examined. The results show that each TIrI score, the leukocyte number around the implanted materials and capsule thickness gradually decreased during the observation period. At the endpoint of follow-up, the Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr implant was surrounded with a thinner capsule, while both the TIrI score and the number of leukocytes of the peri-implant zone were greater compared to the Ag/PVA/Gr implant. Despite the observed differences, we can conclude that our in vivo experiment suggested that both novel hydrogels were biocompatible and suitable for medical use.


The paper presents the experimental installation for the production, in argon plasma, of cavitational iron microparticles (pore microspheres, microtubes and octopus-shaped microparticles). Experimental results are presented and discussed and it is shown that absorbant particles with a minimum iron content are obtained by the plasma procedures


The synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis for medical purposes was studied. A complex of optical and analytical methods was used in order to characterize produced nanoparticles. It was shown that the extracellular formation of metal nanoparticles of spherical shape with sizes in the range between 8 and 40 nm (the average size of 20-30 nm) takes place. The characteristics of gold and silver nanoparticles in the Spirulina biomass were compared. The role of biosorption processes in the synthesis of nanoparticles was estimated by using equilibrium dialysis. A positive influence of sonication on the process of microbial synthesis and yield of nanoparticles were demonstrated. The neutron activation analysis and the atomic absorption spectrometry were applied for characterizing the dynamics of gold and silver nanoparticles formation in the Spirulina platensis biomass. The neutron activation analysis was used for studying the elemental content of the Spirulina platensis biomass.