Photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye using doped and undoped ZnS nanoparticles
In the present study, ZnS nanoparticles were prepared using the mechanochemical method. The ZnS nanoparticles prepared were doped with different concentrations of manganese using metal acetate and manganese acetate by mechanochemical method. The as-prepared particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared nanoparticles samples, in the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green, had been investigated. The nanoparticles were photo induced, generating hole transfer for photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation of malachite green was observed at different pH (2-5) values, dye concentrations (10-100mg/L) and amount of ZnS nanoparticles (1-2.5 g/L). About 95% degradation of dye was observed on the addition of 2 g/L ZnS in 50 mg/L dye solution after 90 minutes illumination at 125 W. Degradation has been increased up to 99% using UV/nanoparticles/H2O2 (50 mL/L) combined process. The degradation efficiency was also compared using Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-x MnxS, where x = 0.01, 0.22 and 0.3). Maximum of 97% degradation was observed with 0.01% concentration of Mn. Kinetics study and performance of UV/ZnS, UV/ZnS/H2O2, UV/doped ZnS processes were evaluated to compare the efficiency of different processes.
The paper presents a simple way to improve the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide using mechanochemical method. The TiO2 (Anatase) powders was subjected to high-energy ball milling in dry environment and in methanol. It has been shown that it is possible to induce the phase transformation from Anatase to Rutile and produce a material with a higher photocatalytic activity in the UV light. Physicochemical characteristics of the products were based on the following methods and techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR and UV-Vis (DR) spectroscopy, measurements of specific surface area (BET). The photocatalytic activity of the powders was measured in the decomposition reaction of methyl orange in water.
LiNiO2 was prepared through two-step solid-state reaction by mechanochemical method and heat treatment, using LiOH (Li2CO3) and Ni(OH)2 as starting materials. The influence of grinding speed and time, heat treatment time, and starting materials on the structure of LiNiO2 was studied. The as-milled samples and products were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that uniform as-milled samples can be obtained at grinding speed of 580 rpm for 0.5 h, using LiOH and Ni(OH)2 as raw materials. Perfect crystal LiNiO2 has been prepared by calcining the as-milled samples at 700 °C for 15 h. Composite material powders consisting of Li2Ni8O10 and LiNiO2 have been obtained using Li2CO3 as lithium source.
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