Andersen, K. & T. Clevenger, Jr. (1963) “A Summary of Experimental Research in Ethos”. Speech Monographs 30, 59-78.
Berlo, D.K., J.B. Lemert, & R.J. Mertz (1969) “Dimensions of Evaluating the Acceptability of Message Sources”. Public Opinion Quarterly 33, 563-76.
Cronkhite, G., & J. Liska. (1976) “A Critique of Factor Analytic Approaches to the Study of Credibility”. Communication Monographs 43, 91-107.
McCroskey, J. C. 1966. “Scales for the Measurement of Ethos”. Speech Monographs 33
The big question behind the research on media and democracy is: do media influence public opinion and the actual policy? The discussion about Finland’s NATO membership is a case in point. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, there has been a continuous public debate about whether Finland should join NATO. In the last 16 years, however, public opinion on NATO membership has not changed much. Despite the changes in world politics, such as NATO enlargement and new weapons technology, Finns still rely on military non-alliance and want to keep their own army strong. During the last ten years, there seems to be no correlation between media coverage and public opinion: pro-NATO media content has not been able to make Finns’ attitudes towards NATO more positive. The information provided by most of the Finnish newspapers is different from the way ordinary people see NATO. In the papers’ view, joining the alliance would be a natural step in Finland’s integration into Western democratic organizations. Ordinary people on the contrary consider NATO more as a (U.S. led) military alliance which is not something Finland should be a part of. Historical experiences also discourage military alignment. In the light of data drawn from newspaper articles and opinion polls, the article suggests that journalism has had only a slight effect on public opinion about Finland’s NATO membership. The NATO issue does not count for much in any measurements that have been made regarding the preferences of Finnish voters. As the NATO issue is not considered to be important, most people do not have enough motivation to learn about NATO. Thus, the journalistic interpretation of NATO has not reached the general public, leaving the impact of the media limited.
Björkroth, T. & Grönlund, M. (2012) ‘The growth of leading regional newspapers-evidence on circulation spirals and scope for competition’, Paper presented at the XXI World Media Economics Conference in Thessaloniki. 24-5.2012.
Campos, J. & Vega, G. (2002) ‘Concentration measurement under cross-ownership. The case of Spanish electricity sector’, Documento de Trabajo 2002-06. Universidad de Las Palmas
Furhoff, L. (1973) ‘Some reflections on newspaper concentration’, The Scandinavian Economic History
Citizens’ Cognitions and Emotions of Society and Self in Relation to Mediated Violence
Birgitta Höijer and Joel Rasmussen
allmänhetens syn på samhället, säkerhetspolitiken och försvaret. [Opinion 2001. New Threats and Risks]. Stockholm: Styrelsen för psykologiskt försvar (Meddelande nr. 160).
Best, J. (1999) Random Violence. How We Talk about New Crimes and New Victims. Berkely and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Boehnke, K., Schwartz, S., Stromberg, C. & Sagiv, L. (1998) ‘The Structure and Dynamics of Worry: Theory, Measurement, and Cross-National Replications’, Journal of Personality 66(5): 754 -782.
Bless, H., Fiedler, K. & Strack
Comparing the Perceived Importance of Television, Newspapers and the Internet in Finland, 1999-2009
Matti Näsi and Pekka Räsänen
., Hargittai E., Russell Neumann, W., Robinson J.P. (2001) ‘Social implications of the Internet’, Annual Review of Sociology 27: 307-336.
Fidler, R. (1997) Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Finnpanel (2011) Results from the TV Audience Measurement . Retrieved May 2011, from http://www.finnpanel.fi/en/tulokset/tv.php
Gershuny, J. (2003) ‘Web Use and Net Nerds: A Neofunctionalist Analysis of the Impact of Information Technology at Home’, Social Forces 82: 141
Fifth Measurement, October 2004. http://europa.eu.int/information_society/soccul/egov/egov_benchmarking_2005.pdf
Paulson, Tiiu (1986) Auditooriumist [About audience]. In ENSV Teleraadiokomitee panoraam 1985. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat.
Paulson, Tiiu (1993) Eesti NSVst Eesti Vabariiki. Käsikiri (From ESSR to Estonian Republic. Mimeo). Tallinn: Telirad.
Saar, Andrus (1985) TV ja raadio auditooriumi uurimise tulemusi [Results of broadcasting audience research]. In ENSV Teleraadiokomitee panoraam 1984. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat
Cross-Fertilization of Paradigms: A Synthesizing Approach to Qualitative Audience Research
Kim Christian Schrøder
Analysis as a Tool for Reconstructing the Meaning of ICTs in Daily Life’, in R. Silverstone & M. Hartmann (1998).
Buhl, C. (1991) ‘The Consumer’s Ad. The Art of Making Sense of Advertising’, in H.H. Larsen m.fl., (red.) (1991).
Camargo, E. (1987) ‘The Measurement of Meaning: Sherlock Holmes in Pursuit of the Marlboro Man’, in J. Umiker-Sebeok, (ed.), Marketing and Semiotics. New Directions in the Study of Signs for Sale. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Dahl. H. & Buhl, C. (1993) Marketing og semiotik. København: Akademisk Forlag
Does TV Viewing Improve our Knowledge about Immigration?
Toril Aalberg and Zan Strabac
, W.E. & P. Sneiderman (eds.) Studies in Public Opinion. Attitudes, Nonattitudes, Measurement Error, and Change . Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Blumler, J.G., and M. Gurevitch, (1995). The Crisis of Public Communication . London: Routledge.
Boomparden, H.G. and R. Vliegenthart (2007) ‘Explaining the Rise of Anti-immigrant Parties: The Role of News Media Content’, Electoral Studies 26: 404-417.
Cappella, J.N. and K.H. Jamieson (1997) Spiral of Cynicism. The Press and the Public Good . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
An International Comparison of Politicians and Journalists
Miika Vähämaa and Mark D. West
. New York: Oxford University Press, USA.
Karppinen, K., Hallvard, M. & Svensson, J. (2008) Habermas, Mouffe and political communication. A case for theoretical eclectism. Javnost - The Public, 15(3): 5-22.
Kim, E.S. & Yoon, M. (2011) ‘Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT’, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 18(2): 212-228.
King, P.M. & Kitchener, K.S. (2002) ‘The reflective judgment model: Twenty years of research on epistemic cognition’, in Hofer