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craniomandibular disorders: a review of the literature. J Oral Rehabil, 1989;16:1-20. 9. Visser A, Kroon GW, Naeije M, Hansson TL. EMG differences between weak and strong myogenous CMD patients and healthy controls. J Oral Rehabil, 1995;22:429-434. 10. Tortopidis D, Lyons MF, Baxendale RH. Bite force, endurance and masseter muscle fatigue in healthy edentulous subjects and those with TMD. J Oral Rehabil, 1999;26:321-328. 11. Basmajian JV. Biofeedback in medical practice. Can Med Assoc J, 1978;119:8-10. 12. Ferrario VF, Tartaglia GM, Galletta A, Grassi GP, Sforza C. The influence

patients with acute and chronic temporomandibular disorders. Lasers Med Sci, 2013;28:57-64. 10. De Oliveira RH, Hallak JE, Siéssere S, de Sousa LG, Semprini M, de Sena MF et al. Electromyographic analysis of masseter and temporal muscles, bite force, masticatory efficiency in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders compared with healthy controls. J Oral Rehabil, 2014;41:399-408. 11. Kampe T, Edman G, Bader G, Tagdae T, Karlsson S. Personality traits in a group of subjects with long standing bruxing behaviour. J Oral Rehabil, 1997;24:588-593. 12


The objective of this study was to test the clinical effectiveness of the gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs; 785 nm) and superluminiscent diodes (633 nm) phototherapy (MedX 1100 device) for the treatment of patients with temporomandibular disorders and myofascial pain syndrome. The results demonstrated a positive effect in pain relief. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the level of pain was observed for the temporomandibular joint and for the masseter muscles using paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The experimental study on pork muscle samples showed that a) the main part of laser radiation is absorbed by the tissue in thin layer of 3-4 mm, b) in the spectral region 650-950 nm the intensity of light penetration is about 0.2-0.25 percent of the initial light intensity.


Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45) followed by abdominal muscles (n=16), diaphragm (n=14) and shoulder (n=13). Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.


Introduction. Pathological muscle tone can cause changes in the facial skeleton, including tension headaches, tinnitus, temporomandibular joint dysfunctions. The complexity of pathologies and their spectrum may also indicate changes beyond the facial skeleton. The aim of the study was to determine the possible correlation between the pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle and the bioelectrical tension on the masticatory muscles.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the possible correlation between the pressure pain threshold of the trapezius muscle and the bioelectric tension on the masticatory muscles.

Material and methods. The number of 36 women applied for the study. They were all examined using an algometer within a trapezius muscle to determine the pressure pain threshold. The electromyographic study was carried out in accordance with the SENIAM guidelines. The resting activity of selected masticatory muscles (temporal and masseter) was recorded for 10 sec. The study involved an 8-channel BioEMG IIITM surface electromyography apparatus with BioPak Measurement System (BioResearch Associates, Inc. Milwaukee, WI, USA). Statistical analysis was carried out using the r-Pearson test. The level of significance was set at 5%.

Results. After comparing the bioelectric tension of the masticatory muscles and the pressure pain threshold, left-sided correlation was observed (p<0.05). Both in the right-hand and general comparison, the results did not reach the required level of statistical significance (p>0.05).

Conclusions. The pressure pain threshold seems to be linked to the bioelectrical muscle tone of the masticatory muscles. To confirm this observation, further research into a larger and more diverse group of participants is recommended.

. Masseter and temporalis excur sive hyperactivity decreased by measured anterior guidance development. The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, Publisher: Chroma, Inc. Audience: Acade mic Format: Magazine/Journal. 2012 Oct; 30(4): 243–54. 13. Wang C, Yin X. Occlusal risk factors associated with temporomandibular disorders in young adults with normal occlusions. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Patho. Radiol. 2012 Oct; 114(4): 419–23. 14. Ciancaglini R, Gherlone E.F., Radaelli G. Association between loss of occlusal support and symptoms of functional disturbances of the

instrumentation-based method of analyzing occlusion and its resulting distribution of forces in the dental arch. J Orofac Orthop 2010;71(6):403-10. 15. Korioth TW. Number and location of occlusal contacts in intercuspal position. J Prosthet Dent 1990;64(2):206-10. 16. Koos B, Godt A, Schille C, et al. Precision of an instrumentation-based method of analyzing occlusion and its resulting distribution of forces in the dental arch. J Orofac Orthop 2010;71(6):403-10. 17. Kerstein RB, Radke J. Masseter and temporalis excursive hyperactivity decreased by measured anterior guidance

. (2005). The influence of hot pack therapy on the blood flow in masseter muscles Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 32, 7. [24] Fearon, R. E., Foss, R. G. (1968). Exothermic composition containing a metal oxide and acid or acid salts US 3475239. [25] Jackman, R., Johnson, J. (1970). Exothermic composition US 3766079. [26] Krupa, C. S. (1975). Heating pack containing a granular chemical composition. US 3980070. [27] Gossett, R. L. (1974). Magnesium sulfate anhydrous hot pack having an inner bag provided with a perforated seal. US 4057047. [28] Miyashita, E. (1987). Hot

E, Skotnicki P, Moskal J, Ambicka A, Harazin-Lechowska A, Wasilewska A, Vogelgesang M, Dyczek S. Primary soft tissue giant cell tumour of the neck. Cytological and histological characteristics of the tumour and differential diagnosis. Pol J Pathol. 2009;60:98-104, quiz 105. 13. Pepper T, Falla L, Brennan PA. Soft tissue giant cell tumour of low malignant potential arising in the masseter-a rare entity in the head and neck. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:149-51. 14. Wieneke JA, Gannon FH, Heffner DK, Thompson LD. Giant cell tumor of the larynx: A

Mora M., Weber D., Borkowski S., et al.: Nocturnal masseter muscle activity is related to symptoms and somatization in temporomandibular disorders. J. Psychosom. Res., 73, 301, 2012. 36. Shephard M.K., Macgregor E.A., Zakrzewska J.M.: Orofacial pain: a guide for the headache physician. Headache, 54, 22, 2014. 37. Szabo S., Tache Y., Somogyi A.: The legacy of Hans Selye and the origins of stress research: A retrospective 75 years after his landmark brief “letter” to the editor of nature. Stress Amst. Neth., 15, 472, 2012. 38. Wieckiewicz M., Grychowska N