53 striped surmullet, Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Mullidae), were collected from the Marmara Sea, Turkey and examined for metazoan parasites in July 2017. The parasitic copepod, Peniculus fistula fistula Nordmann, 1832 (Pennellidae), was collected from all the hosts, both on fins and body surface. This is the second report of this copepod in Turkish marine waters. Although Peniculus fistula fistula was reported for the first time on Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 by Öktener (2008), there was an indefiniteness and doubt about the occurrence of this parasite. This study aimed to confirm occurrence of Peniculus fistula fistula in Turkey and to present revised host list with comments.
This study estimated the growth of horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus (Steindachner), populations from the western parts of the Black, Marmara, and Aegean seas. Dependencies of individual daily weight gain at age were determined. The calculations showed that in the area studied the highest absolute weight gain was 45.4 mg day−1 for fish at the age of 2.46 years from Zonguldak (Black Sea). The relative annual increase in the population biomass of T. mediterraneus inhabiting different areas of the Black, Marmara and Aegean seas was determined. It was revealed that the annual relative increase in the biomass of horse mackerel caught in the Black Sea exceeded that in the Marmara and Aegean seas. At the same time, the highest relative annual biomass increase (94.8%) was observed in populations from the Varna-Bourgas region and in the coastal waters of Sevastopol (70.9%) in the Black Sea.
Deep-Water Benthic Polychaetes (Vigtorniella Zaikai and Protodrilus sp.) in the Black Sea as Indicators of the Hydrogen Sulfide Zone Boundary
The Black Sea hypoxic layer, situated near the boundary of the hydrogen sulfide zone, is inhabited by the polychaetes Vigtorniella zaikai, Kisseleva, 1992 and Protodrilus sp., which can serve as indicators of the interface between oxic and anoxic water. The maximum number of polychaetes in the northern part of the Black Sea occur at a depth of 150 m, while near Bosporus, where the flow of the Marmara Sea water enters the Black Sea, the peak depth varies from 150 to 250 m.
During the period 2008-201 3, 32 different breeding territories were occupied by eastern imperial eagles (EIEs). These territories were mainly distributed in two regions: the Dervent Heights/Yıldız Mts. and the area to the north of the Marmara sea coast. The nearest neighbour distance established was 4.2 km. The mean distance between pairs was 1 0.44±2.95 km. The mean value of breeding success for the period 2008-201 3, including 1 07 cases of incubation, was 1 .01±0.1 0. The mean breeding success of birds in the Marmara region (1 .05±0.78) was higher than that in the Dervent Heights/Yıldız Mts. (0.91±0.84). The present study on the diet of the EIE was based on the remains of 582 prey items of at least 70 taxa. Mammals were the most common group (46.5%), followed by birds (32.4%) and reptiles (20.3%). The white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) was the most common prey, followed by two tortoises - Hermann's tortoise (Eurotestudo hermanni) and the Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca) - which together accounted for a total of 1 4.4% of the prey caught. The prey species particularly represented in the food spectrum of the studied pairs were: the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), the European souslik (Spermophilus citellus), the chicken (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). These species together accounted for 67.8% of the prey caught. There was a statistically significant difference (Z=2.52, p=0.01 ) in the food preferences of the EIEs in the two studied regions.
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