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two-year old apple trees of Śampion and Jonica cultivars. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 5(1): 79-89. Kviklys D., 2006. Induction of feathering of apple planting material. Latvian J. of Agron. 9: 58-63. Lindhagen M., 1998. Predicting branching in young apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.). Acta Hort. 456: 125-132. Magyar L., Hrotkó K., 2005. Effect of BA (6-benzyladenine) and GA 4 + 7 on feathering of sweet cherry cultivars in the nursery. Acta Hort. 667: 417-422. Oosten H.J. van, 1983. Boomkwaliteit en teelttechniek. Fruittelt 47: 1226-1229. Rossi A.D., Rufato L

) Prediction of diameter, weight and quality of apple fruit ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. “Elstar” using climatic variables and their interactions. Europ. J. Hort. Sci., 75 (2), 60–70. Kalinowska, M., Bielawska, A., Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, H., Priebe, W., Lewandowski, W. (2014). Apples: Content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties. Plant Physiol Biochem. , 84, 169–188. Mao, H., Zhang, T., Li, R., Zhai, B.,Wang, Z., Wang, Q., Zhang, Z. (2017). Apple pomace improves the quality of

-Biosphärenreservat Flusslandschaft Mittlere Elbe. Augenblick - Zeitung für das Biosphärenreservat 1 (8), 4-5. CHEVREAU, E. and F. LAURENS (1987): The pattern of inheritance in apple (Malus × domestica BORKH.): further results from leaf isozyme analysis. Theor Appl Genet 75, 90-95. COART, E., X. VEKEMANS, M. J. M. SMULDERS, I. WAGNER, J. HUYLENBROECK, E. BOCKSTAELE and I. ROLDÁNRUIZ (2003): Genetic variation in the endangered wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) MILL.) in Belgium as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Mol. Ecol. 12, 845-857. COART, E., S


This review summarises the research projects that have been conducted with the goal of mapping the apple (Malus × domestica) genome. The generation of apple linkage and physical maps, which was started at the end of the 20th century by many scientific teams, has resulted in rich data useful for further fundamental and applied studies. The mapping efforts mainly contained the choice of mapping populations as well as the choice of types and number of markers. Over the years, scientists have achieved major successes and faced major obstacles. Many economically important traits have been mapped in the apple genome, which has a total length of 2000 cM. The recently published integrated genetic and physical maps summarise the data and will be helpful to modern breeding programs, with a special focus on resistance to various diseases, as well as on fruit quality and other desired apple traits.

.1093/jxb.err215. Hemmat M., Weeden N.F., Manganaris A.G., Lawson D.M. 1994. Molecular marker linkage map for ap–ple. J. Hered. 85: 4-11. Igarashi M., Abe Y., Hatsuyama Y., Ueda T., Fukasawa-Akada T., Kon T., Kudo T., Sato T., Suzuki M. 2008. Linkage maps of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivars ‘Ralls Janet’ and ‘Delicious’ include newly developed EST markers. Mol. Breed. 22: 95-118. DOI: 10.1007/s11032-008-9159-5. Keller-Przybyłkowicz S., Korbin M. 2013. The history of mapping the apple genome. Folia Hort. 25(2): 161–168. DOI: 10.2478/fhort-2013-0018. Kenis

A., S obiczewski P., P uławska J., M aciorowski R. 2016. Control of fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ) by a novel strain 49M of Pseudomonas graminis from the phyllosphere of apple ( Malus spp.). Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 145(2), 265-276. M ikulič -P etkovšek M., Š tampar F., V eberič R. 2007. Parameters of inner quality of the apple scab resistant and susceptible apple cultivars ( Malus domestica Borkh.). Sci. Hortic. 114, 37-44. M ikulič -P etkovšek M., Š tampar F., V eberič R., 2009. Changes in the inner quality parameters of apple fruit from


Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare). The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.


A trial was established in 2011 with five rootstocks - MTT1, MTT4 and control B.9 (1.5 × 4 m, five replications with two trees), MTT5 and control MM.106 (2.5 × 5 m, six replications with two trees), and two cultivars - ‘Auksis’ and ‘Gita’. The evaluated parameters were: tree general condition, flowering, and yielding intensity (points), number of root suckers, average yield (kg·tree-1), yield per trunk cross section area (g·cm-2), average fruit mass (g), and amount of non-standard fruits (%). A randomised fruit sample from each cultivar-rootstock combination was put into storage, and a panel taste was performed once each season. A snowless winter occurred in 2013/2014, when soil froze to 1.5 m depth, which was critical for MM.106. Other rootstocks did not show injury. The best results were obtained for MTT4, which was similar to that of M.26 in Finland. Its vigour was similar to MM.106, and start of bearing to B.9. Rootstock MTT5 was initially grouped with medium vigour MM.106, as having 60-80 % of vigour of ‘Antonovka’ seedlings in Finland. Yet in our trial, it had vigour and start of bearing was similar to that of B.9 or slightly larger, depending on cultivar; it has a tendency to form root suckers. MTT1, ranged with B.9 in Finland, had too weak vigour. The most promising cultivar-rootstock combination was ‘Gita’ on MTT4.


The content of calcium and potassium and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity as well as the expression of LOX encoding gene in the fruit of apple cultivars that are both susceptible and resistant to bitter pit were evaluated. Fruits were collected and analyzed after harvest in the 2004 growing season and again after four months of common cold storage. The main reason was the explanation of relationship between those LOX activity and K:Ca ratio on bitter pit occurrence during storage. The biggest differences between the tested cultivars were noted in LOX activity and Ca content, followed by K:Ca ratio and the lowest potassium content. The cultivars that were resistant and susceptible but without symptoms of bitter pit exhibited higher calcium content compared to cultivars with signs of bitter pit, and with a drop in LOX activity after storage. A negative correlation was found between LOX activity and Ca content and a positive correlation was found between K:Ca ratio and LOX activity.


Apples and pears are among the most important commercial fruit species grown in Latvia. Because of suitability to local climatic conditions, mainly domestic cultivars and cultivars originating in neighbouring countries are grown. The planting material of pome fruits produced and used for establishment of new orchards in Latvia corresponds to the Conformitas Agraria Communitatis standard due to the unavailability of nuclear stock. To establish virus-tested, experimental nuclear stock for apple and pear, one to two years old candidate plants were exposed to thermotherapy at +38 °C for 40 to 70 days. The mother trees and candidate plants before treatment were tested for the presence of the four most widespread pome fruit viruses by RT-PCR. The shoot tips of the heat-treated plants were grafted onto seedling rootstocks and were re-tested for the four viruses by RT-PCR during the next three to five vegetation seasons. Several plants of apple cultivars ‘Dace’, ‘Zarja Alatau’, ‘Rubin’, and ‘Ausma’ remained infected either with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem growing virus or Apple stem pitting virus after the thermotherapy. Tests on woody indicators were carried out to determine possible presence of graft-transmittable organisms according to EPPO guidelines for the establishment of nuclear stock material for pome fruits.