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Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications of mandibular molar surgery and may lead to litigation for mal-practice. Entrapment of the inferior alveolar nerve to roots of an impacted mandibular molars is extremely rare. The aim of this case report is to stress the importance of tooth multi-sectioning with the use of magnification for the safe removal of a deeply impacted second molar with entrapment of the inferior alveolar nerve in its proximal root.

-331. Beintema, J. A., Lappe, M. (2002). Perception of biological motion without local image motion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99 (8), 5661-5663. Bertenhal, B. I., Pinto, J. (1994). Global processing of biological motion. Psychol. Sci., 5 (4), 221-225. Blake, R., Schiffrar, M. (2007). Perception of human motion. Annu. Rev. Psychol., 58, 47-73. Boyton, G. M., Duncan, R. O. (2002). Visual acuity correlates with cortical magnification factors in human V1 [Abstract]. J. Vis., 2 (10), 11. Campbell, R. A., Lasky, E. Z. (1968). Adaptive Threshold Procedures: BUDTIF. J. Acoust. Soc

’s esophagus: overdiagnosed and underestimated. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105:1523-1530. 11. Endo T, Awakawa T, Takahashi H, et al. Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2002;55(6):641-647. 12. Guelrud M, Herrera I, Essenfeld H, Castro J. Enhanced magnification endoscopy: a new technique to identify specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2001;53(6):559-565. 13. Sharma P, Weston A, Topalowski M, et al. Magnification chromoendoscopy for the detection of intestinal metaplasia and

REFERENCES 1. The Use of the Operating Microscope in Endodontics. Available at: 2. Apotheker H, Jako GJ. A microscope for use in dentistry. J Microsurg . 1981;3:7-10. 3. Arens DE. Introduction to magnification in endodontics. J Esthet Restor Dent . 2003;15:426-439. 4. Carr G, Murgel CA. The use of the operating microscope in endodontics. Dent Clin North Am . 2010; 54:191-214. 5. Jaeken B, Tabernero J, Schaeffel F, Artal P. Comparison of two scanning instruments to measure peripheral refraction in the human eye. J Opt

parameters of the standard DVA. [ 1 ] presented a series of analytical solutions for the DVA attached to damped primary systems by minimizing the maximum amplitude magnification factor of damped primary systems. For damped primary system, a number of studies have focused on the numerical solutions. These include, but are not limited to, numerical optimization schemes [ 13 , 18 ], frequency locus method [ 22 ] and min–max criteria [ 3 , 8 , 17 ]. A non-traditional type DVA, also called a variant DVA, was introduced by [ 19 ] in which the absorber damper is connected to

acquisition parameters [ 7 , 14 ]. It does not allow adaptation of the image to specified magnification and features smaller than 0.042 [mm] will not be detected [ 13 ]. In most ITP analysis, CCD cameras with a microscope are used [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 10 , 12 , 13 ]. Different studies used different magnifications of fabric images, and thus different ITP values, for example, 322 ITP, were corresponding to 23 × 14 threads in image, which equates to approximately 5.5 × 4.2 [mm] of fabric [ 1 ], or between 50 and 100 ITP in images [ 10 ], or near 90 ITP, 9 × 8 threads, 2.6 × 3


Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.


The structure of Ceria doped Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (1Ce10ScSZ) electrolyte film deposited by EB-PVD (Electron Beam-Physical Vapour Deposition) technique on NiO-ZrO2 substrate was characterized by electron microscopy. The highly porous substrate was densely covered by deposited film without any spallation. The produced electrolyte layer was of a columnar structure with bushes, bundles of a diameter up to 30 μm and diverse height. Between the columns, delamination cracks of few microns length were visible. The annealing of zirconia film at 1000 °C resulted in its densification. The columnar grains and delaminating cracks changed their shape into a bit rounded. High magnification studies revealed nanopores 5–60 nm formed along the boundaries of the columnar grains during annealing. High-quality contacts between the electrolyte film and anode substrate ensured good conductivity of the electrolyte film and high efficiency of SOFC.


Objective: Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis. Determination of microvessel density is the most common technique used to evaluate the amount of the intratumoral angiogenesis in breast cancer. We have aimed to investigate the relationship with tumor angiogenesis and prognostic parameters in breast invasive ductal carcinomas.

Material and Method: In this study, a total of 100 invasive ductal carcinoma patients, who were diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine between the years 2003-2008, were re-evaluated. Patient characteristics and clinicopathological findings were obtained from archival records. In the present study, microvessel density was determined by immunohistochemical staining by using anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody in the paraffin blocks. First, the most vascular area was selected in the tumor under a low magnification (40x) by a light microscope and then microvessels were counted under a higher magnification (200x). Patients were classified as low and high microvessel density depending on their microvessel counts. Chi-square test and multivariate linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis (p≤0.05).

Results: We have determined that microvessel density increases as tumor size increases (p=0.001). Microvessel density was higher in patients with at least 10 lymph node metastases compared to those with no metastasis (p=0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference between microvessel density and other prognostic factors such as histological grade, nuclear grade, patient age, vascular invasion, estrogen, progesterone receptor status, HER2/neu expression.

Conclusion: In our study, we have found that microvessel density is associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.


The results of conducted by the authors of the article numerical analyzes, indicate the importance of normal stresses, perpendicular to the adhesive joint, during the impact destruction of block adhesive samples. This kind of stresses are responsible for the occurrence of tearing or chipping in a joint. The very significant influence of adhesion in the impact-bonded adhesive joint was the reason for testing this parameter in joints made with adhesives with different Young’s modulus. It was assumed that adhesives differing in stiffness will have different adhesive properties, which should affect the impact strength of the adhesive joints. It was also assumed that the adhesion in the joint can be assessed by analyzing the surfaces of joint damage. Cylindrical butt joints connected with various adhesives were used to carry out the tests, in which they were loaded on tear-off. The nature of tested joints damage was usually cohesive or cohesive-adhesive. The assessment of the nature of joint damage allowed to determine whether they were the result of the loss of cohesion by the adhesive (cohesive damage) or the effect of poor adhesion between the hardened joint and adherends (adhesive damage). The assessment of the nature of the destruction was carried out by three methods: visual, using an optical microscope and using an electron microscope. As a result of the carried out observations, it was found that the visual method is the least useful and not very reliable, especially in the case of transparent or low-contrast in relation to the glued material joints. The use of electron microscope allows to obtain the most reliable results, however, the possible magnification is too large and the assessment of the entire weld fracture is difficult because it does not fit in the field of observation. Observations conducted using optical microscopy at a slight magnification (5-10 times), in most cases allow to determine the nature of the destruction to a satisfactory degree, with limitations such as in the visual method.