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Characterization of the Embryogenic Tissue of the Norway Spruce Including a Transition Layer between the Tissue and the Culture Medium by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Abstract

The paper describes the visualization of the cells (ESEs) and mucilage (ECMSN) in an embryogenic tissue via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxometry measurement combined with the subsequent multi-parametric segmentation. The computed relaxometry maps T 1 and T 2 show a thin layer (transition layer) between the culture medium and the embryogenic tissue. The ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer differ in their relaxation times T 1 and T 2; thus, these times can be used to characterize the individual parts within the embryogenic tissue. The observed mean values of the relaxation times T 1 and T 2 of the ESEs, mucilage, and transition layer are as follows: 1469 ± 324 and 53 ± 10 ms, 1784 ± 124 and 74 ± 8 ms, 929 ± 164 and 32 ± 4.7 ms, respectively. The multi-parametric segmentation exploiting the T 1 and T 2 relaxation times as a classifier shows the distribution of the ESEs and mucilage within the embryogenic tissue. The discussed T 1 and T 2 indicators can be utilized to characterize both the growth-related changes in an embryogenic tissue and the effect of biotic/abiotic stresses, thus potentially becoming a distinctive indicator of the state of any examined embryogenic tissue.

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Quantitative MRI of Vastus Medialis, Vastus Lateralis and Gluteus Medius Muscle Workload after Squat Exercise: Comparison Between Squatting with Hip Adduction and Hip Abduction

-50. Borg G. Borg's Perceived exertion and pain scales. Sweden: Human Kinetics, 1998. Boudreau SN, Dweyer MK, Mattacola CG, Lattermann C, Uhl TL, Keon JM. Hip-muscle activation during the lunge, single-leg squat, and step-up-and-over exercises. J Sport Rehabil , 2009; 18: 91-103. Carneiro AAO, Vilela GR, Araujo DB, Baffa O. MRI relaxometry: methods and applications. Braz J Phys , 2006; 36(1 Suppl A): 9-15. Cerny K. Vastus medialis oblique / vastus lateralis muscle activity ratios for

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