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References Aurdal, LRBH, Vikhamar, D & Solberg, A 2005, Use of hidden Markov models and phenology for multitemporal satellite image classification: applications to mountain vegetation classification. Available from: <> [12 April 2012]. Bacour, C, Baret, V, Beal, D, Weiss, M & Pavageau, K 2006, ‛Neural network estimation of LAI, fAPAR, fCover and LAIxCab, from top of canopy MERIS reflectance data: Principles and validation’. Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 313‑325. Brodsky, L, Vobora, V, Sourkova, L & Kodesova, R

References Baldocchi, D., Hicks, B., Meyers, T. 1988. Measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methods. - Ecology, 69, 1331-1340. Baret, F., Pavageau, P, Beal, D., Weiss, M., Berthelot, B., Regner, P. 2006. Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for MERIS Top of Atmosphere Vegetation Land Products (TOA_VEG), version 3. ESA. Buck, A.L. 1981. New equations for computing vapour pressure and enhancement factor. - Journal of Applied Meteorology, 20, 1527-1532. Eenmäe, A., Nilson, T., Lang, M. 2011. A note on

References Baret, F., Bacour, C., Béal, D.,Weiss, M., Berthelot, B., Regner, P. 2006. Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for MERIS Top of canopy Land Products (TOC_VEG), version 3. INRA-CSE, Avignon. Caldararu, S., Purves, D.W., Palmer, P.I. 2013. Phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality: a global model. - Biogeosciences Discussions, 10, 15107-15151. Chen, J.M. 1996. Optically-based methods for measuring seasonal variation of leaf area index in boreal conifer stands. - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 80(2-4), 135-163. Climate Normals. 2015. Climate

Unauthenticated | Downloaded 05/14/20 07:16 AM UTC Therapeutic Group Therapy to Mother’s Knowledge and Ability About Personality and Psychosocial Development of Preschool–Age Children Shinta Dewi Kasih Bratha1*, Meri Neherta2, Dewi Eka Putri3 {shintadewikasihb@gmail.com1, merineherta1963@gmail.com2, dewi.adisyifazi@gmail.com3} STIKes Tengku Maharatu, Riau. Indonesia1; Universitas Andalas, Padang. Indonesia2,3 Abstract. Mother is the first education for children to provide stimulation for preschool to prevent developmental disorder


Major histocompatibility complex class 1 chain-related genes (MIC) are part of the non-classical MHC genes located on the short arm of chromosome 6. MICA comprises of approximately 11 kb DNA and encodes polypeptide of 383 amino acids. The expression of MICA is limited to the surface of the epithelial cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes and monocytes, but not on the surface of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes. It manifests its role by binding with the NK cell receptor NKG2D. There are 84 different alleles for MICA due to discovered polymorphisms in the exons 2 to 5. The aim of this review is to present the data known so far about the association of MICA with different diseases and the role of anti-MICA antibodies in organ and stem cell transplantation. The frequency of different MICA alleles and their association with different HLAB alleles, as well as the association of MICA with different inflammatory diseases, infection diseases and tumors was determined. Post- and pre-transplant anti-MICA antibodies are associated with antibody-mediated rejection in kidney and heart transplantation. Patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which have MICA mismatch, have higher frequency of graft versus host disease episodes. In spite of lack of conclusive data about the role of anti- MICA antibodies in organ and stem cell transplantation, there is still clinical relevance for investigation of the polymorphisms of the MICA gene and anti-MICA antibodies.


Introduction. In the last decade, the impact of oral health on overall health status in the elderly has attracted considerable attention. Elderly people are often not aware that oral diseases and tooth loss can be prevented. Oral health behaviour involves acquisition of individual habits for preservation and maintenance of oral health, such as regular brushing and brushing teeth, using fluoride-rich toothpastes and dental floss, reducing sugar in the diet and habit of regular visits to the dentist. The aim of this research was to assess knowledge and attitude toward maintenance and preservation of oral health in people over 60 years in FYROM.

Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of the population, older than 60 years in FYROM, who use dental services and treatment in public health institution, at the Faculty of Dentistry in Skopje (Clinic of Mouth and Periodontal Diseases) and in the Health Centre in Skopje. As an instrument of this research, a questionnaire which included issues related to oral health behaviour was used for the targeted population. 193 patients answered the questions in this questionnaire.

Results. The age of respondents was significantly associated with the frequency of brushing their teeth and interdental spaces, as well as the habits of frequent dental care visits to the dentist. The gender of the patients had a highly significant effect on the use of fluoride toothpastes and the time that had passed since their last visit to the dentist (p<0.01). Education level in elderly patients significantly affected the knowledge of the individual oral health care.

Conclusion. Respondents with higher education brushed their teeth and interdental spaces more frequently and had regular dental check-ups. Furthermore, they almost always used fluoride toothpaste when brushing their teeth. The increased concern for their own health correlated to a higher level of knowledge, awareness and attitudes about oral health care, and follow recommendations by a dentist. In FYROM, oral health behaviour of patients above 60 years is far behind the level of care that is achieved in higher developed countries.


Recent developments in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) have created new opportunities for enhancing both the operations and competitiveness within the banking sector. The application of contemporary ICT-based solutions has resulted in significant changes in the traditional banking business, through the involvement of brand new approaches in the process of distribution of banking products and services to customers. As a part of the services offered by any modern bank, e-banking has become a synonym for an efficient system aimed at delivering traditional banking services through electronic communications channels, available to anybody, anywhere and anytime. The goal of the paper is to perform an empirical analysis of the current situation regarding the level of customer usage and satisfaction with e-banking services in the Republic of Macedonia. The study will enable us to determine which variables affect the level of adoption and satisfaction with е-banking services. The study is fully based on the statistical data analysis of the responses gathered from a representative sample of e-banking customers.


The decision of investment is a strategic decision and it is an integral part of the general policy of the company. The purpose of this paper is to present the manner in which the ROI (Return on Investment) indicator can be used in the analysis of investment projects.

Understanding the concept of investment is the first issue addressed. Then ROI is analyzed, highlighting the advantages and limitations of its use. They are addressed the aspects related to the manner in which the size of the ROI indicator is influenced by the method of valuation of assets, but also by the method of calculation of the working capital. The research results can be used by any investor to select based on ROI indicator, an investment project of several possible. As well, ROI may serve after completion of the investment to measure its profitability.


Introduction: The term angiodysplasia (AD) refers to acquired malformation of the blood vessels (communications between veins and capillaries), frequently found within the gastrointestinal mucosa and submucosa. AD of stomach and duodenum are cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in 4%-7% of patients. The means of treatment are usually endoscopic, including argon plasma coagulation (APC), electrocoagulation, mechanical hemostasis by clippsing, laser photo-coagulation and injection therapy.

Aim: To compare the success rate, and adverse events (ulcer lesions, perforations) of APC and injection therapy in the treatment of bleeding angiodysplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

Material and Methods: In a prospective study including 50 patients with bleeding angiodysplasia of the upper GIT, 35 patients were treated with APC, and remaining 15 with injection therapy using adrenaline and 1.5% solution of polidocanol. Follow-up period was 6 months.

Results: A total of 50 patients aged 18 to 64 years, 64% male and 36% female, have been treated during 2 years period. The rate of recurrent bleeding and side effects was significantly higher in the adrenaline group (p <0.01). Blood transfusion was required in 68% during the first hospital admission. Angiodysplasia of the stomach was present in 66%, versus 34% in duodenum.

Conclusion: Endoscopy is “gold standard” for diagnosis and treatment of AD in the gastrointestinal tract. The study unveiled APC as more effective treatment option with lower degree of complications and adverse events in comparison to injection therapy in patients with bleeding AD.

Allele Frequency of HLADQB1 Locus in Macedonian Population

Aim: The aim of this paper was to genotype HLA DQB1 locus in healthy unrelated Macedonian population.

Material and Methods: Reverse Line Strip typing for HLA DQB1 locus was performed on a population of 217 samples from healthy individuals. The results were obtained as alleles, and as NMDP Codes. Alleles were genotyped and expressed as high resolution with more than four digits with slash between ambiguous alleles. NMDP Codes were expressed as four digits for unambiguous results, and with combination of numbers and characters for the certain ambiguous combination. We did not found any genotypic ambiguities in HLA-DQB1.

Results: We have found 33 different alleles of HLA DQB1 in Macedonian population, 12 of which were unambiguous with the frequency of 40.55%, and 21 were ambiguous with the frequency of 58.53%. The biggest frequency (33.64%) was found for HLA DQB1*05 unambiguous groups, and for HLA DQB1*03 ambiguous groups (36.40%). The biggest allele frequency in Macedonian population for HLA DQB1 was found for HLA DQB1*03NX (0301/01/01/02/09/13) with 27.88%, followed with HLA DQB1*0502 with 13.82%, and HLA DQB1*02MN (0201/02/03) with 10.37%.

Conclusion: Allele frequency of HLA DQB1 in Macedonian population is similar with that found in other European populations and can be used for anthropology and disease association studies.