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Andrzej Cieślik, Jan Jakub Michałek and Alfred Tovias
The level of globalization in the world economy has been steadily increasing. Is it really a common phenomenon, in which all economic sectors and companies in a country participate? Is the opening-up of economies, seen from a microeconomic perspective, characterized by similar mechanisms in different countries? Do firms from MENA countries, where trade liberalization has taken place relatively recently, behave as expected, according to existing trade theories? Do they behave like firms in OECD countries (including Turkey and Israel)? To this
Aging World: 2008 U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC: National Institute of Aging.
Masoumi, H. E. (2014). Urban sprawl in mid-sized cities of MENA, evidence from Yazd and Kashan in Central Iran. Management Research and Practice, 6(2): 25-41.
Mogalakwe, M. (2006).The use of documentary research methods in social research. African Sociological Review, 10(1): 221-30.
Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J. C &Hausken, K. (2014).Inequality, economic growth and poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). African Development
This article investigates the interdependence of stock-forex markets in MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries for the February 26, 1999 to June 30, 2014 period. The analysis has been performed through three competing models: the VAR-CCC-GARCH model of Bollerslev ; the VAR-BEKK-GARCH model of Engle and Kroner ; and the VAR-DCC-GARCH model of Engle . Our findings confirm that both markets are interdependent and corroborate the stock and flow oriented approaches. We also find that, comparing to optimal weights, hedge ratios are typically low, denoting that hedging efficiency is quite good. Our estimation of hedging efficiency suggests that incorporating foreign exchange in a full stock, unhedged portfolio increases the risk-adjusted return while reducing its variance. (We note here that the forex market is overweighted for both portfolio allocations and hedging strategies.) Moreover, this conclusion holds for all countries in all three models.
Middle East: From Transition to Development , pp.30-53. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
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This paper explores the patterns of aggregate cyclical behavior within the Middle East and North Africa region and among this region and the major industrialized economies. We seek to determine how the volatility and the symmetry of MENA countries have been modified following their recent liberalization initiatives. In particular, we ask the broad question of how far the MENA zone can “couple” with the most developed economies and maintain a relative synchronicity with the world business cycle over 1970-2010. The Hodrick-Prescott filter is applied to decompose the real GDP of these countries and obtain the resulting series of cyclical components. These are compared at different time horizons: the contemporary, short-term, and long-term. Two approaches are used: a static one, based on properties of variability, co-variation and correlation, and a dynamic one, based on long-term relationships using an autoregressive distributed lag models and short-term dynamics using an error correction models. A long-term convergence between the MENA, the G7, the European, and the Anglo-Saxon cycles is confirmed particularly during 1989-2010, period under which the MENA countries have engaged an important economic integration process. This could denote a coupling of the region with the industrialized nations. The idiosyncratic cycles of the MENA countries are closely associated with the G7 experience, especially, in long term. While the European cycle has an important effect on the North African countries, the Middle East region is rather more dominated by the Anglo-Saxon zone.
Francisco Flores Muñoz, Diego Valentinetti, María Mora Rodríguez and Ángel Mena Nieto
This paper proposes a measurement method for assessing the extent to which the XBRL digital standard eXtensible Business Reporting Language can assist firms in implementing their reporting when applying EMAS The EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. A specific survey based on the work of (Bunker et al., 2007), which uses Value Compatibility, was carried out at the most important firms in Southern Spain. Different sectors were involved in the study: public hospital, copper manufacturing facilities, petrochemical plant and pulp and renewable energy production. The results reveal some concordances between EMAS using XBRL as a reporting technology, and the cultural, organisational and technical working environment of the analysed firms, specifically those related to the Structural Dimension. By contrast, some discordance is highlighted related to the Practical Dimension. The paper proposes for the first time the application of the global financial standard XBRL for a non financial purpose like the widely accepted EMAS, to actual potential uses in real scenarios. The empirical research combined heavy industry with services, privately owned firms with public entities, private and public sector, in the analysis of this technology. The paper represents a necessary landmark for a subsequent longitudinal study.
Goga Cristina, Brinzaniuc Klara, Florian I.S. and Rodriguez Mena R.
The fiber dissection technique involves peeling away white matter fiber tracts of the brain to display its three-dimensional anatomic arrangement. The intricate three-dimensional configuration and structure of the internal capsule (IC) is not well defined. By using the fiber dissection technique, our aim was to expose and study the IC to achieve a clearer conception of its configuration and relationships with neighboring white matter fibers and central nuclei. The lateral and medial aspects of the temporal lobes of twenty, previously frozen, formalin-fixed human brains were dissected under the operating microscope using the fiber dissection technique.
The details of the three-dimensional arrangement of the fibers within the IC were studied and a comprehensive understanding of their relations was achieved. The white matter fiber dissection provides an enhanced perspective of the intricate architecture of the internal structure of brain. This enhanced understanding of intrinsic brain anatomy, particularly of functional highly relevant fiber systems such as the internal capsule, is essential for performing modern neurosurgical procedures.
Javier Mallo, Esteban Mena, Fabio Nevado and Víctor Paredes
The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01) accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.