1. HELCOM recommendation 11/10 Guidelines for capacity calculation of sewage system on board passenger ships (1990) Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.
2. HELCOM overview on port reception facilities for sewage in the Baltic Sea area and related trends in passenger traffic (2013) Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission.
3. Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78 convention. HELCOM: Interim guidance on technical and operational aspects of delivery of sewage by passenger ships to port reception facilities (2013) Baltic Marine
Degradation of the environment is nowadays believed to be the most alarming problem that needs to be solved. Global warming and environmental pollution are predicted to cause a catastrophic chain reaction leading to species extinction, mass emigration due to rising sea levels and global crisis. The only solution suggested by international organizations is the immediate reduction of greenhouse gases and other harmful substances. Marine transportation harmful substances into the atmosphere are recognized to be a significant source of global atmospheric pollution. Despite the high efficiency of marine diesel engines, their impact on the environment is considerable. Due to environmentally friendly policies, modern engines concerns about not only efficiency but also mainly about s aspects. This article analyses and compares marine s exhaust gases reduction methods. Especially the most harmful substances emitted by ships were taken into consideration. The article presents the most crucial law regulations of harmful substances to the atmosphere, pointing at actual and possible future implementations. The most complex methods allowing meeting the latest limits were presented. Pros and cons of available control methods were thoroughly described and methods were compared. The most adequate methods form the effectiveness and economical point of view was pointed out.
ANN based evaluation of the NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke diesel engine
The article presents results of a study on the possible application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the evaluation of NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of a marine two-stroke Diesel engine. A concept is presented how to use the ANN as an alternative to direct measurements carried out on a ship at sea. Methods of proper ANN selection, configuration and training are presented. Also included are the results of laboratory tests, performed to obtain data for ANN training and tests, and the results obtained from modelling certain processes with the aid of selected ANNs. As a result of the performed investigations, an ANN was constructed and trained to calculate NOx concentration in the Diesel engine exhaust gas based on the engine operation parameters measured with an average error of 1.83%, and the fuel consumption measured with an average error of 1.12%.
Shipping emits a variety of air pollutants: sulphur dioxide (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter PM. Air pollutant emissions from maritime transport can be transported over long distances and thus increasingly contribute to air quality problems. Key environmental regulations (international and European) coming into force in this decade address emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2 and PM to control and limit their impact in the atmosphere. In the European Union, accordingly to the legal regulations, in the sulphur emission control areas the required SOx content of fuel will be reduced from 1.5 % to 0.1 % beginning January 2015. Globally, from 2020 onwards, ships operating in all other European Sea areas will have to use fuels with sulphur content of 0.5 % or less.
., Adamkiewicz, A., Zapobieganie zanieczyszczaniu powietrza przez statki w świetle najnowszych wymagań Załącznika VI Konwencji MARPOL , Zeszyty naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, No. 18 (90), pp. 66-70, 2009.
 Michalski, R., Siłownie okrętowe, Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Politechniki Szczecińskiej, Szczcin 1997.
 TransBaltic, Implications of new regulation regarding sulphur content in ship’s fuel on maritime transport sector within Baltic Sea Region , Helsinki 2012.
 Międzynarodowa Konwencja o Zapobieganiu Zanieczyszczeniu Morza Przez Statki 73
Esa Hämäläinen, Olli-Pekka Hilmola and Andres Tolli
9. Diesen, M. (1998) Economics of the Pulp and Paper Industry . Gummerus Oy, Jyväskylä.
10. Dieter, M. and Englert, H. (2007) Competitiveness in the global forest industry sector: an empirical study with special emphasis on Germany. European Journal of Forest Research , Vol. 126, pp. 401-412.
11. Einemo, U. (2013) Methanol Sea Trial Expected to Start this Month. Sustainable Shipping . Petromedia Ltd., < http://www.sustainableshipping.com >.
12. Entec (2010) Study to Review Assessments Undertaken of the Revised MARPOL Annex VI Regulations
IMO: Resolution MEPC. 141(54): Amendments to the Annex of the Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, (MARPOL 73/78) , March 2006.
Marcin Szczepanek, Przemysław Rajewski and Dalibor Barta
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) became mandatory for new ships as well as the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships due to the MEPC 62 (July 2011) along with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI by the Parties to the MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which has been obligatory since 2013, did not to cover fishing cutters but triggered the implementation of energy efficiency audits due to fishing limits, high fuel prices, and free freight market. A research team of the Maritime University of Szczecin conducted energy efficiency audits on several fishing vessels operated on the Baltic Sea and provided the results to the shipowners. On their grounds, the shipowners started seeking methods to reduce energy consumption. They began modernizing the vessels using the information collected in the reports on energy audits. Usually, the modernization process is performed in several stages. Apart from energy recovery installations, fishing vessels were furnished with the latest technologies aimed at the reduction of energy consumption and at making ships greener. The paper presents results of the said process at the selected fishing cutters operating on the Baltic Sea. The paper includes also the recommendations on the directions of the following stages of the audits.
Casualty and underwriting statistics, IUMI, Copenhagen, 2007.
Międzynarodowa Konwencja o Bezpieczeństwie Życia na Morzu, SOLAS 1974. Wydanie Polskiego Rejestru Statków. Gdańsk 2006.
Międzynarodowa Konwencja o zapobieganiu zanieczyszczaniu morza przez statki, 1973/1978, MARPOL. Wydanie Polskiego Rejestru Statków. Gdańsk 2007.
Report of the Facts & Figures Committee, Tore Forsmo. IUMI Copenhagen 2007.
Marcin Szczepanek, Przemysław Rajewski, Dalibor Barta and Iwona Michalska-Pożoga
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) became mandatory for new ships as well as the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships due to the MEPC 62 (July 2011) along with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI by the Parties to the MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol. The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which has been obligatory since 2013, did not to cover fishing cutters but triggered the implementation of energy efficiency audits due to fishing limits, high fuel prices, and free freight market. All the above caused that ship-owners started seeking ways for saving money and keep their business profitable. Apart from energy recovery installations, fishing vessels have been furnished with the latest technologies aimed at the reduction of energy consumption and at making ships greener. A research team of the Maritime University of Szczecin conducted energy efficiency audits on several fishing vessels operated on the Baltic Sea and stated that up to 40% of the energy is used during fishing operations by hydraulic devices installed at the fishing vessels. The paper presents the measurement results of energy consumption in typical operational states based on a selected fishing cutter operating at the Baltic Sea. The paper includes also the recommendations in terms modernization of hydraulic installations and the changes of control methods for devices with hydraulic drive. The calculations are also presented herein and they prove that it is possible to reduce energy consumption by a fishing cutter even by 20% while maintaining the unchanged operating parameters of the hydraulic devices.