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Objective: Our study presents the partial results of the research with the Z generation, which aims to get acquainted with and explore the specific features of selecting Human Resources Professionals (HR) in order to increase employment, especially through the applicability of the tools of employee branding. Our main objective is to explore the tools that can be implemented in the branding process for the potential employees of the Z generation and to demonstrate the practical applicability of these elements to improve investment. In addition, we aim to explore the generational-specific characteristics of investments, what challenges should be addressed today by a HR specialist, what solutions and practices are used in relation to the relevant response to these challenges.

Methodology: In this publication, we present the partial results of a research project, supported by the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Resources (ÚNKP-18-3-III). In the first phase of the research project, we conducted a qualitative examination (B2C, B2B), in which we conducted thirty mini-focus interviews (using semi-structured interview guides). The subjects were recruited using a snowball sampling method, the filtering condition was the age of the subject. Only the subjects remained in the sample who, according to their age, belong to the Z generation.

Findings: As a result of this research, we can see what the HR specialists interviewed think the benefits of employer branding are if they are able to act with a conscious and strategic approach to HR activities. Investigating consumer attitudes related to investments - despite the recognition of their significance - is less well-researched, and articles of empirical research also appear in international literature today. In order to fill the gap, we would like to contribute to Hungarian studies.

Value Added: In our view, the results can provide useful information to companies who have similar difficulties in dealing with recruitment challenges and generational differences. In this paper we present the qualitative partial results of primary research. Both secondary and primary research show that a key factor for successful companies is the existence of a credible, internal employer branding strategy that continuously reflects on the labour market challenges. It is important that the employer’s brand - just like a product / service brand – should be well-positioned with clear values and messages. The other important aspect is the coordination of the activities of the individual groups and areas, because marketing, PR and HR are the builders and representatives of the same brand. You can then be successful and credible with your employer branding if all the details – similarly to a puzzle - are in place

Recommendations: Without the strategic approach, the directions, the goals, and the alignment of the activities are not identified, which is reflected in inefficiencies. The employer’s brand has a well-positioned value, message and mission, which plays an especially important role in increasing the loyalty of young people (Y and Z generations).


Objective: The main objective of this paper is to reveal the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and human capital.

Methodology: The analysis consists in a presentation of main achievements in the literature regarding the contribution of human capital to the attraction of FDI.

Findings: The investment in human capital formation has leaded to the increase of labour productivity. This will ultimately result in economic growth. Education has the most important role in the process of human capital formation.

Value added: FDI has an important role to play in human resource development through its ability to enhance new skills, information and technologies in multinational enterprises. In this way, FDI becomes a determinant factor for education and professional training, because it is the link between the immediate reality based on creation, introduction of new skills, new technologies and provision of a wide range of information and initial training direction.

Recommendations: The economic policies should focus on the attraction of FDI that ensures the improvement of human capital quality. On the other hand, the education policies should focus on a better connection of the human resources to the requirements of the labour market and to offer acknowledge and practice that will help the graduates to correspond to the expectations of foreign investors.


Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) are services that involve intensive use of high technologies, specialized skills and professional knowledge. However, there are insufficient findings on the competences of employees in the sector of KIBS. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the research on employees’ competences in different service sectors of two CEE countries: Poland and Belarus. This study adopted a quantitative approach based on a questionnaire applied to 101 companies from Poland and 42 companies from Belarus. The comparative analysis shows quite similar findings - the most significant competencies are employee engagement, motivation and customer-focused orientation and play a crucial role in the efficiency of services in both countries.


A large number of Slovak small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are confronted with often-leaving employees. This situation can have a devastating effect; thus, the ability to predict and early detect the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation provides them with a competitive advantage.

Paper aims to determine how employer attractiveness influences the employees’ intention to stay or leave to another organisation. The online questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data during the September and October 2019 among 357 Slovak SMEs’ employees. The employees’ values were described by EmpAt’s five dimensions scale. Binary logistic regression was used to predict which employer attractiveness factor leads to an intention to stay in the organisation within the next 6 months. Results show that to the employee’s decision to stay working for the organisation contribute Application Value (AV Odds Ratio=2.53), followed by Economic Value (EV Odds Ratio=2.36), Interest Value (IV Odds Ratio=2.23), and Social Value (SV Odds Ratio=1.48). We did not find statistically significant associations between Development Value (DV) and the employees’ intention to stay or leave (ISL).

This study makes several contributions to extant human resource management literature. First, it extends the research on employer attractiveness and employee retention. Second, it expands the knowledge about the predictors of employees’ intention to stay in organisations. On the managerial level, it recommends that the employees’ intent to stay or leave should be regularly measured.


Research Purpose. The human resource function of firms is faced with the challenges of identifying recruitment practices that contribute to employee retention as a recruitment outcome. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between E-recruitment practices and employee retention of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Nigeria.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Two research questions were posed for the study and two hypotheses formulated in line with the objectives. Questionnaires were administered to the selected population of the Unilever Nigeria Plc. Corporate websites and commercial websites sites were the E-recruitment practices used to analysed their influence on employee retention. The data were analysed using manual and electronic based methods through the data preparation grid and statistical package for the social science, (SPSS). The study made use of statistical tools such as regression analysis in testing hypothesis and analysis of variance (ANOVA), which helped in the interpretation of results.

Findings The research use analysis to estimate trends that corporate websites and commercial websites were significant in explaining employee retention. The results of this study confirm existing literature that argues for a positive relationship between the two variables. The results also portray that human resource managers should have an understanding of the relationship between E-recruitment practices and employee retention.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The study seeks to contribute to existing literature on E-recruitment practices and employee retention. The practical justification would be useful to human resource practitioners by making them aware of the current E-recruitment practices and the impact of its implementation to a firm’s level of employee retention


Human resources are the most significant resource of a company; this is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in which they create the company’s competitive advantage because of their uniqueness. Human resources manage other resources and are responsible for the efficiency and success of the organization. The main goal of this research is to determine whether and to what extent the recruitment and selection of human resources are in correlation with the performance of SMEs. The research was conducted in SMEs in the Herzegovina Region in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 2019. An original questionnaire was created for the survey, within which top managers views on recruitment and selection of human resources were collected as well as the four-perspective performance of the business based on the Balanced Scorecard model. SPSS 20.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive measurements used for data analysis include mean, standard deviation, and mode. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test distribution normality. To test the correlation of variables and to determine the significance of differences, the Pearson correlation coefficient and t-test for independent samples were used. The level of significance was set to p = 0.05. The research results showed the correlation between the studied variables and the correlation of recruitment and selection of human resources and the performance of SMEs viewed from all four perspectives. A limitation of the research is the sample size and the sampling method. The results can be applied in the human resource management of SMEs.


The article discusses the problems of commercial banks related to the deterioration of their image as employers, especially in eyes of the millennial generation, which soon will become the most attractive category for employment in modern business. The main criteria that guide the millennial generation when choosing a future job are identified. A detailed analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of banks as employers has been carried out, and advice for image improvement has been formulated, aimed at the young audiences of potential bank employees. It was proven that banks should build not only an effective PR campaign to create a powerful image of a reliable employer, but at the same time they should establish a reliable system to counteract unfair competition, ultimately aimed at destabilizing financial institutions, which are most sensitive to image problems.


Objective: to compare the meaning of work for three different samples of people working in private companies and in the public sector in one hand, and living in two different countries: Argentina and the Canary Islands.

Methodology: original semiotics-based methodology

Findings: most of the variables that were ranked in the top three average results match in all three samples; Canarians and Argentineans have a different perspective about the State’s role; Canarian workers prefer social relationships over economic and security aspects while Argentineans prefer job stability due to a job insecurity context in the country.

Value Added: the new methodology helps in organizing thought using abductive logic. It helps understanding the meaning of complex phenomena.

Recommendations: it may be useful for managers and researchers in the area of Management for creating creative answers and solutions through the analysis of facts.


Introduction. Currently in Poland second demographic transition takes place, main features of it being the drop of the birth rate, postponing the decision of starting a family and having children. Moreover, more people decide to live alone and do not have offspring. These processes lead to great change of the demographic structure of the country, for example low birth rate do not allow for the generational replacement. In addition, with extending the life expectancy, we observe society aging. In the future perspective we can expect prolonging drop of the birth rate, and as a consequence, drop in the number of fertile population and growth in the percentage of after fertile age.

Aim. The aim of the paper was to collect opinions of young women on the preferred family model and eliciting reasons that in their opinion determine decision of resigning from having more children.

Material and methods. The method used was diagnosing survey and the technique was authors’ questionnaire. The number of 538 women aged 19 to 42 were questioned.

Results. The majority of the questioned women would prefer to have a family with two children (M-51.91) and three children (M-34.4). At the same time, the majority of the questioned mothers (62.13%) had one child, 31.49% – two children and only 5.10% – had three children. In the opinion of the questioned women, two main reasons for decision about having less children are the unemployment and low salaries. Large percentage of women (every second one) is afraid of the negative attitude of the employer towards maternity leaves.

Conclusions. One of the reason of giving up or postponing decisions about motherhood and having small number of children by those who decide to be mothers in Poland may be concerns about professional and economic situation.

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