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Negative Brand Names

Abstract

We hear more and more often that positive things make our life more beautiful and make us more optimistic. But is it really true? If until a few years ago, the products had usual names, now it is desired for them to have a catchy name that would remain in the memory of the target audience. In this research I have analysed the attitude that young people have towards energy drinks with negative brand names, the impact of these energy drinks on them and also the influence they have on the decisional act of purchase. Among secondary objectives was the establishment of the notoriety of energy drinks that have negative names in the case of young people. Another secondary objective consisted in the comparative analysis of the impact that energy drinks with negative names have on men and women. Also, for the determination of the attitude that young people have towards energy drinks with negative names, it was necessary to get one at the time the feelings, the conviction offered by these energizers and also the intent of buying them among young people.

Open access
Conditions and Possibilities of Geothermal Energy Utilization to Enhance Economic-Touristic Development of Jošanička Banja

Abstract

According to the temperature, thermomineral water can be used for various balneological treatmens, as well as for agriculture, communal economy, electro economy, etc. This paper analyses homeohtermal (36°C) and hiperthermal (78°C) waters of the spa Jošanička banja which, together with that of Sijarinska (70°C) and Vranjska banja (90-110°C) are some of the hottest waters in the Republic of Serbia. Besides the temperature for balneo and wellness therapies, also very important are mineral properties which show that the water of the spa in question is characterised by the law level of mineralisation with slightly increased concentration of fluorine, sulfate, metabolic acid, silicon dioxide and similar compounds, which makes them suitable for the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory rheumatism, muscle disease, lumbago, sciatica etc. Based on the analysis of the water temperature and yield of dozens of springs with hiperthermal water, thermal capacity of spa water is determined as well as the possibility of using it in the electro economy, communal economy and agriculture. In conclusion, the use of thermomineral water during balneological treatmens can have different, more practical and more economic model. Practice shows that partial use of healing thermomineral water represents a significant loss in energy on the one hand, where, on the other hand, direct discharge of hot water can negatively affect individual components of the enviroment.

Open access
Influence of segmentation factors on leaflet distribution

Abstract

In marketing communication it is important to know what and how to inform the customer, it means to know the target audience, where it is located and how it is possible to reach it. The most commonly used form of addressing the customer in the retail is a leaflet action. This article aims to highlight the use of segmentation aspects by retail in the selected region for the best implementation of selected communication mix - direct marketing. An analysis of secondary data - professional literature and studies dealing with the meaning of communication in the company, specifically marketing communication with a focus on direct marketing in the retail – was executed to fulfil the objectives of the article. Results from a questionnaire survey that examined the influence of spatial data on the purchasing behaviour of customers in Ústí nad Labem - City will be used as primary data. Survey results indicate the fact that it was necessary to collect spatial data on the segment. A selected market was examined in the questionnaire survey mainly in terms of geography and demography and impact of these criteria on the leaflet distribution process application. Geographical segmentation provided information on the spatial distribution of retail shops in the city. Socio-demographic segmentation offered information about age, gender, status, and education of customers who shop in the supermarkets.

Open access
Proposal for Brand’s Communication Strategy Developed on Customer Segmentation Based on Psychological Factors and Decision-Making Speed in Purchasing: Case of the Automotive Industry

Abstract

Customers are key in the brand-building process. Many times, this term is applied very broadly, especially in segmentation and planning. Knowing the customer buying behaviour and customer decision-making process is important for brands, especially today, when customers are informed much better and get information over the Internet faster. In this paper, we present theory that deals with the purchasing behaviour of customers and emphasize the analysis of the sales cycle of the individual phases in the current conditions, when segmentation based on socio-demographic data is not enough. It is much better to define the psychological factors, which influence the customer and motivate him to buy in combination with the buyer’s decision-making speed. Thus, the article discusses the basic four types of customers according to the major research work carried out by Eisenberg brothers. Based on this analysis, we can determine the percentage of individual customers. The article offers a survey that was conducted to find the most important factors in the decision-making process when buying a car. In addition to the criteria, we also asked our respondents about the importance of these factors. We have used the multiple criteria decision analysis as it is one of the methods of complex evaluation and it minimizes the degree of subjectivity in choosing a suitable variant. Based on our survey, we have used analysis to estimate trends that brands operate in automotive sector could use to communicate in order to address the type of customer that belongs to their target audience. The primary aim of the paper is to prove that there is a growing trend of humanistic customers through study about their preferences and criteria during the decision-making process that leads them to buy a new car. Moreover, we determinate communication strategies for all four types of customers based on theory provided by Eisenbergs.

Open access
Characteristics of Cosmetics Brands by Country of Origin According to the Opinion of Polish Consumers

Abstract

Purpose: This article concerns the attitudes of Polish consumers toward the country of origin of the brand. The aim is to describe the characteristics of cosmetics brands depending on the country of origin according to the opinions of Polish consumers.

Methodology: The study covers several types of cosmetics: creams, shampoos, soaps, and lotions. The text analyzes twelve characteristics of brands and twelve countries of origin. The quantitative study bases on the Web Panel Interview method. The survey is representative of Polish adult internet users.

Findings: The study shows significant differences in the perception of the characteristics of cosmetics brands depending on the country of origin. Companies may use the positive features associated with the country of origin of the brand in the process of creating value for customers.

Research limitations: The results are valid for all brands of cosmetics from the selected country but not for individual brands. The research analyzed twelve characteristics of brands and twelve countries of origin. Thus, future research should address other characteristics and countries of origin. The opinions of Polish consumers may differ from those of other countries.

Originality: The originality of this study consists in the analysis of many differences in the perception of the brands depending on the country of origin. This article shows that the selected country of origin may be associated with many different characteristics.

Open access
Relationship between Spokesperson’s Gender and Advertising Color Temperature in a Framework of Advertising Effectiveness

Abstract

Advertising spokesperson is one of the undeniably important factors affecting advertising effectiveness. However, advertising spokesperson has to have some particular features to be effective. Various previous researches resulted in determination of different features of advertising spokesperson and their effectiveness; i.e. type of a spokesperson (celebrity vs. a regular person); gender and race of a spokesperson; etc. were found to have an impact on the spokesperson’s effectiveness. However, the research on the impact of shooting color temperature on its effectiveness is still scarce. Moreover, an assumption can be made that color temperature might cause a different effect depending on advertising spokesperson’s gender. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between spokesperson’s gender and advertising color temperature in a framework of advertising effectiveness. Neuromarketing research methods were applied to meet the aim and to determine the guidelines for its usage in advertising.

Open access
Cultural Codes and Brand Equity Relations – Exploratory Study and Research Implications

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to explore the possible relationships between cultural brand narration and brand equity. The concept of cultural branding has been developed in marketing literature, but there are no studies showing the outcomes of building brand narrations based on residual, dominant and emergent cultural codes and whether these outcomes include effects connected with brand equity. The paper is based on multiple case research. As a result, the author suggests cultural brand narration as an independent variable, and brand equity dimensions as dependent variables. The author then forms one theory proposition and three hypotheses on the relationships between those variables. Based on multiple case research the author suggests that conservative brand narration relates negatively to brand-related effects, whereas popular and progressive brand narrations relate positively to brand-related effects.

Open access
Competitiveness of Family Tourist Micro-Enterprises as an Element of Tourist Destination Product

Abstract

Objective: Tourist regions are characterized by a very high complexity and micro-enterprises are the largest group of entities which determine the competitiveness of the destination. However, management of such businesses has a strong specificity. The goal of this paper is to identify the capabilities of managing competitiveness and marketing of this group of entities.

Methodology: Literature review, examining and discussing the current knowledge regarding the competitiveness of family tourist micro-enterprises.

Findings: On the one hand, small companies have significant limitations compared to larger companies. However, the family nature of the company allows for high flexibility of management. Decisions can usually be made faster and easier, which means that they are able to adapt their offer to the expectations of customers faster and better than large entities. Also, an atmosphere of hospitality and friendship can be easily created. What is more, cooperation with other local entities should result in the ability to offer higher value to consumers.

Value Added: Authors, on the bases of literature review have proposed a model that shows relations as an element of building competitiveness of a family tourist micro-enterprises. It appears that these firms have unique opportunities to develop relationships with their customers. Cooperation, quality and communication have been described as key variables responsible for this process, that should result in generating the benefits of re-selecting the services of the company as well as giving them positive recommendations.

Recommendations: In the area of family businesses in tourism, there is still lack of empirical studies. That is why, the issues presented in this work should be subjected to empirical verification. Future research should concentrate on the specificity of managing a tourist family micro-enterprise and on possible sources of competitive advantage of a tourist family micro-enterprise in the eyes of customers. Especially, described model should be empirically verified.

Open access
To Explore the Effectiveness of Digital and Experiential Marketing in Attracting Customer Participation in the Hong Kong Wine and Dine Festival

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of digital and experiential marketing in attracting customer participation in the Hong Kong Wine and Dine Festival. This study explores the evolution of theories and models of digital and experiential marketing, and how they account for participation in a specific event. Findings show that variables related to media have moderate to strong relationship to customer satisfaction: owned media - HKTB Facebook, paid media - search engine, earned media - word-of-mouth, experiential marketing - escapist, experiential marketing - entertainment. Customer satisfaction also has a moderate relationship to customer loyalty. To boost the number of visitors, it is critical to better utilize the owned media – HKTB Facebook, paid media - search engine, and earned media – word-of-mouth to provide information and get positive feedback from visitors. The experiential marketing seems to be equally important and the marketer/organizer should consider providing escapist and entertainment experiences for visitors.

A major limitation is the cross-sectional nature of this study. Future research could adopt a longitudinal approach by exploring issues related to promotional tools and types of experience over say three consecutive years. Another limitation is the sample size and type. Numbers are moderate and the snowball sampling adopted is non-probabilistic, which means that findings are suggestive rather than generalizable to all similar events.

Open access
Probabilistic Model on Buying Decision of Higher Education Services

Abstract

Buying decisions are determined by two key factors: endogenous factor that belongs to the buyer (which is present at least the attitudinal variable) and exogenous factors such demo-economic, sociological, psychological, marketing mix, linked all more or less by the product or the service offered for purchase and consumption. The study aims to use Rasch’s model to express the likelihood that a consumer will make the decision to purchase a higher educational service. Applied to item solving, Rasch probabilistic model, on which the research methodology study is largely supported, states that the probability of success in solving an item depends on two factors. The one belongs to that who solves the item - the human factor, called the latent trait, and the other belongs to the item, called the facility of the item The purchase decision approach using the Rasch model results validity is mainly based on the isometry of the two situations The results of the study describe behavioral probability situations where customers who make university education services purchasing decisions can themselves be found. We recommend the educational marketing strategies based on the analysis made on the applied model, which may increase the students’ enrolled number in a particular university.

Open access