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Research purpose. The quality means a core attribute of the product. Based on empirical assessment of the consumer, it is ascertained if the products are of high quality. However, there may be considerable counterarguments against this assessment, because quality is a subjective characteristic. For this reason, a paradoxical situation arises – the same product that we consider to be a quality product someone else may regard as insufficient quality. What is considered standard quality level in some cases may be the assumed to have achieved world-class quality. This way the definition of quality product is very difficult. Brand is one of possible ways to differentiate products from one to another and at the same time it is one of possible ways to simplify consumer choices of choosing the best product. The brand can be the label for many consumers synonymous with quality. In this paper, the existence of difference between expected and delivered quality of brand products is analysed.
Design / Methodology / Approach. The survey of detection of the sources of the value of the brand was realized in 2018 in Slovak conditions. This primary source provided the base assessment of quality of branded sport clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. Using factor analysis, supported by Cronbach’s alpha, verified by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure and Bartlett's test of sphericity, comprehensive factors that enable comparison of expected attributes and perceived reality were constructed. The extraction method of factor analysis was principal component analysis, the rotation method was Varimax with Kaiser normalization. Then the factors were analysed by chi-square test and correspondence analysis.
Findings. The objective of this article was to detect the existence of differences between the expected and perceived quality of brand products in Slovak conditions. Comprehensive factors were constructed that contain information about quality of branded clothes, cars, banks, cola drinks and brand products in general. The dependence of expectations and reality was indicted and paper resolved the relations between individual categories of factors.
Originality / Value / Practical implications. The original survey of attitudes of Slovak consumer was made. The information about of notable sample was analysed, and this empirical study pointed out the real quality of brand products.
Jan Strelinger, Pavol Kita, Jaroslav Kita, Veronika Kitova Mazalanova and Ferdinand Dano
Objective: Characterize pedagogical innovation in the context of internationalization of French-language education on the example of international study programme in French language - Sales management at the Faculty of Trade of the University of Economics in Bratislava and testing of its attractiveness from the perspective of the relationship between students and educational institution.
Methodology: Article deals with the analysis of the influence of internationalization of the university education within the study programme Management of sale, as well survey of the opinions of its graduates.
Findings: Pedagogical innovation is not only the tool of the educational policy but also creates conditions of the project European term and excellence in the development of Professional competences of the future managers.
Value Added: International study programme in French language overcomes cultural and disciplinary barriers and contributes to offsetting of the national and international differences.
Recommendations: Introducing of pedagogical innovations is the tool of new approaches, strategies, methods, as well as new content and new organization of education to guarantee employability of students on the home and international markets.
Maria Hełdak, Agnieszka Stacherzak and Zofia Więckowicz
The study undertakes the subject of public shopping centers in Wrocław as representative of quasi-public space. Public space should enable public discussion, whereas the public events organized in malls have little to do with public debate. The users of shopping centers are usually consumers or business entities whose main goal is to improve the quality of their lives.
Public space should be available without any additional permission to use it. It should also be freely accessible and provide the opportunity for various people to congregate—this is seen as a positive feature of space that is worth visiting. Public space should also promote the notion of public property and encourage its users to express and exchange opinions. Contemporary malls serve as an attempt at providing a replacement for public space.
The study aims to represent the scale of shopping centers operating within the space of the city of Wrocław, the area they occupy and the economic consequences they entail for small entrepreneurs operating in the region where they exist.
In marketing communication it is important to know what and how to inform the customer, it means to know the target audience, where it is located and how it is possible to reach it. The most commonly used form of addressing the customer in the retail is a leaflet action. This article aims to highlight the use of segmentation aspects by retail in the selected region for the best implementation of selected communication mix - direct marketing. An analysis of secondary data - professional literature and studies dealing with the meaning of communication in the company, specifically marketing communication with a focus on direct marketing in the retail – was executed to fulfil the objectives of the article. Results from a questionnaire survey that examined the influence of spatial data on the purchasing behaviour of customers in Ústí nad Labem - City will be used as primary data. Survey results indicate the fact that it was necessary to collect spatial data on the segment. A selected market was examined in the questionnaire survey mainly in terms of geography and demography and impact of these criteria on the leaflet distribution process application. Geographical segmentation provided information on the spatial distribution of retail shops in the city. Socio-demographic segmentation offered information about age, gender, status, and education of customers who shop in the supermarkets.
With the advent of social media where customers have the technical ability to upload own content the change occurred in some of the communication habits online. This world of constant communication is a challenge for businesses as well researchers. Academic research in this area is bringing valuable insights into people attitudes and behaviour on the social media. What is the current situation and where the research field is heading is a question of high importance. This study uses the systematic approach to reviewing the literature and to show the development of publications produced at Czech universities. Although the results show an increasing number of studies, Czech research is lagging behind other similar countries. Compared with the best countries, it is lagging behind in the number of quotations per article. On the basis of these analyses, suggestions for future research that can help to promote future theory development are proposed.
The aim of the paper is to explore the possible relationships between cultural brand narration and brand equity. The concept of cultural branding has been developed in marketing literature, but there are no studies showing the outcomes of building brand narrations based on residual, dominant and emergent cultural codes and whether these outcomes include effects connected with brand equity. The paper is based on multiple case research. As a result, the author suggests cultural brand narration as an independent variable, and brand equity dimensions as dependent variables. The author then forms one theory proposition and three hypotheses on the relationships between those variables. Based on multiple case research the author suggests that conservative brand narration relates negatively to brand-related effects, whereas popular and progressive brand narrations relate positively to brand-related effects.
In the past two decades, several researchers have applied service quality frameworks in sport-related domains in measuring service quality among participants. However, university campus recreation has been scarce as compared to organised sport at local, regional and national levels, which often depends on a limited tenure linked to their membership as a registered student at a university. The purpose of the study is to investigate service quality dimensions as perceived by university leisure and recreation students. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 301 university students using a non-probability purposive sampling. Variables that constituted campus recreation service quality were operationalised through a literature review, including sport and recreational scales. Through factor analysis, seven distinct dimensions of campus recreation service quality were established. These factors were labelled: people interaction, facility design, sociability, physical change, equipment, ambience and program range. Item total correlations show satisfactory convergence of the items within their relevant constructs. This study complements the existing recreational sports body of knowledge by exploring campus recreation service quality. These dimensions may assist campus recreation mangers to understand the dimensions that are pertinent among students within a university context better. Recreation managers, in their periodic measurement of service quality, can incorporate these dimensions.
Literature is replete with a large number of theories related to service quality measurement and dimensions in an airline context. To date, there is no consensus of opinion on the generic model and of the number of dimensions most appropriate to evaluate service quality in airline industry. This study investigates service quality dimensions in the Nigerian airline industry. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to select 800 respondents among departing air travellers in Lagos State. A structured questionnaire containing 28 items was developed to evaluate the perceived service quality of domestic airlines. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and one-sample t-test. The dimensionality of perceived service quality in Nigeria’s airline industry was explored using exploratory factor analysis. From the analysis carried out, it was established that the modified SERVQUAL model provided a satisfactory level of overall reliability in Nigeria’s airline context, which implies that all the items were cohesive in forming the SERVQUAL dimensions. According to the findings of this study, all service quality dimensions are positively and significantly interrelated. The perceived service quality of domestic airlines across these dimensions was found to be poor. The most dissatisfied dimensions in order of ranking were: flight pattern, reliability, facilities, assurance, responsiveness, employee, and customization. On the basis of the aforementioned findings, this study concludes that airline operators should redefine their service standards to one that is customer-focused by identifying the dimension of service quality most preferred by the passengers and continuously strive to improve service delivery. The study recommends that airline operators should recognize the changing needs and expectations of air travellers and customize their range of services by identifying unique service requirements of the individual customers.
Susana Costa e Silva, Adriana Monteiro and Paulo Duarte
Shoes are probably one of the most difficult products to sell online due to the high need-for-touch (NFT) displayed: people need to experiment the product before buying it, more than in any other item. On another hand, women are more prone than men to buy fashion and apparel products through the web channel. This paper investigates the factors driving women consumers to shop footwear products online. A qualitative research method was used grounded on semi-structured, in-depth interviews that were conducted to corroborate the constructs defined in the proposed conceptual model namely: convenience, recreation, NFT and social e-shopping. The interviews were focused on the demand side to understand the female consumers’ perspective and on the top managers of women’s shoes companies representing the suppliers’ viewpoint. The results show that women highly appreciate the convenience that shopping shoes online provides as well as its recreational nature. The NFT also stands out in the shoe market context mainly due to the particularities related to shoe size. Additionally, social e-shopping was found not be as important for women as anticipated as they see social networks more as a communication platform for brands, and less as a factor that influences their predisposition to shop shoes online. On the suppliers’ side, the interviews revealed that managers believe in bloggers and social media influence and its consideration as part of the overall marketing strategy.