Tomasz Olejniczak, Masato Itohisa, Tetsuo Abo and Hiroshi Kumon
Objective: This article illustrates how, on the subsidiary level, the mixture of management practices in Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries operating in Poland changes over time.
Methodology: Study represents the first, rigorous, longitudinal replication of Japanese Multinational Enterprise Study Group hybridization studies conducted using the original methodology. Researchers visited eight original research sites and measured changes after fourteen years in six of them.
Findings: The results indicate significant change in terms of manufacturing practices as well as in the localization of management. On the other hand, there has been practically no change in terms of equipment, organizational culture, and procurement methods.
Value Added: Article contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First it confirms dynamic nature of hybridization trough a longitudinal exploration of changes that took place in management practices. Secondly, it combines JMNESG methodology with the most recent developments in research methods, increasing its clarity and replicability thus paving a way for future longitudinal studies of hybridization.
Recommendations: Based on this research future studies could replicate JMNESG studies in various locations and contexts thus providing further insights into the nature of change in the hybrid factories operating around the world and the nature of Japanese management over the last 20 years.
This paper investigates the basic risk and incentives relationship in franchising companies. The results of past research reflect volatile influence of risk and incentives. An in-depth analysis of this relationship was conducted using case study approach, including 12 international franchise firms of two types. Our study included retail and service franchising. Findings from this research confirm basic agency theory predictions. The risk-incentives relationship is negatively correlated in retail franchise companies, due to lower royalties in the sector. Service franchise companies do not follow the same concept, due to their adaptability of franchise system to local markets. We believe service franchise systems might be responsible for volatility. However, both types of companies nurture and develop strategies based on experience and intuition. Findings of the research offer important insights in understanding the nature of franchisor’s risk perception, as the basic underlying mechanism to the risk and incentives relationship.
The strategy of personnel policy should be subordinated to the general strategy of the organization, its strategic planning. Human resources management is determined by the goals and objectives of the organization. Its functions are associated with ensuring and maintaining the performance of staff. Investments in the personnel potential of the company became an indispensable condition for gaining and maintaining a stable position in the market and began to be taken into account in the personnel policy of the leading companies in the world. Today, the role of effective strategic management and, above all, personnel management, especially the process of planning of the development of human potential, its capabilities and perspectives. Enterprises that do not pay due attention to working with staff and do not direct personnel management towards business success are at risk of aggravation of survival problems.
The paper is focused on developing a predictive, statistical model depicting the relationships among companies' involvement in internationalization, engagement in cooperation with business partners and their fnancial performance.
Data were collected through a CATI survey of managers of medium-sized Polish manufacturing enterprises. The principal statistical technique employed was binary logistic regression. The regression equation model contained four statistically significant dichotomous predictors: (1) sales abroad above 30% of total sales, (2) cooperation with foreign suppliers, (3) cooperation with domestic distributors, and (4) Export-Only Early-Internationalized status of the company. The two former variables were correlated positively with the profit margin, while the two latter shown negative associations.
The principal limitation of the study was a relatively small sample size of 110 units that, while enough to detect patterns with strong and medium-strong effect sizes, might not have provided sufficient power to identify weaker associations. Generalizations were also constrained by the selection criteria of the sample to medium-sized Polish enterprises from traditional manufacturing B2B industries.
The study yielded a regression model that permitted isolation of the main factors linked to the degree of sales profitability, which could assist managers in their efforts to enhance profit margins and in competitor analysis. The originality of the approach involves using a comprehensive list of 25 potential predictors in analysis that represented salient dimensions of cooperation and internationalization. The predictive capacities of the model were found to be sufficient to make it useful for both scholars and practitioners. The research relied on a sample drawn from the population that has rarely been studied on similar subjects.
The article aims at analysis of knowledge-oriented growth of TNCs' foreign subsidiaries, their transformation and evolving participation in knowledge development by parent transnational corporations (TNCs). The author's concept of increasing involvement of foreign subsidiaries in leveraging knowledge in TNCs' organizations is presented with a focus on a new process of “creative transition” by corporate foreign subsidiaries and its implications for the parents and host economies. The research method is based on integration of concepts, elements and instruments used in international management and international business to investigate the evolution of the knowledge development process in TNCs' cross-border organizations.
The analysis of knowledge development and transfer in TNCs, and growth of their foreign subsidiaries as well as key factors of expanding their knowledge-oriented activities reveals the “creative transition” process which is underway in the subsidiaries. It leads to their increased participation in the knowledge development by TNCs and implies some results for parent firms and host economies. It is concluded that the knowledge-oriented activity of foreign subsidiaries can result in possible capturing valuable knowledge co-created by domestic entities what can imply weakening innovativeness and competitiveness of the host economies.
The problem of knowledge-oriented activity of TNCs' foreign subsidiaries and its domestic impacts has not been investigated in Polish publications yet. The article offers a conceptual basis for further theoretical and empirical research with a focus on impacts in a host economy resulting from the knowledge-oriented activity of TNCs' foreign subsidiaries and shows a necessity to work out a fair approach to sharing benefits of knowledge creation and utilization in the host economy.
Athanasios Lamprakis, Kalliopi Alamani, Athina Malliari and Ilias Grivas
Organisational justice is a key component in the practice of human resources management in any work environment. The aim of this research survey is to highlight the meaning and importance of organisational justice and its impact on employee engagement. To achieve this aim, except for the literature review, the survey examines the extent to which the distributive, procedural and interactional justice impact on work and organisational engagement, through a research in a certain Greek public organisation. As regards the statistical analysis of the research hypotheses, we used methods of the SPSS 17.00 statistical package. The results showed that the distributive justice significantly impacts on both types of engagement, while no effect was detected between procedural justice and the two types of engagement. The interactional justice was found to determine, partly, only the organisational engagement. The findings overwhelmingly verified the existing bibliographical references, resulting in a noteworthy empirical precedent which could contribute to the field concerning the impact that organisational justice exerts on certain aspects of organisational behaviour.
The work “Comparative analysis of consulting services in five European countries” intends to offer a general picture of consulting services from five European countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Finland and Romania), through comparative analysis of the indicators presented in FEACO studies: increasing rate of turnover of the consulting market, export level, the evolution of the number of consultant, the evolution of the fees of the consultant, types of consulting services, main field where the clients that request consulting services come from.
The main motivation of this research consisted of understanding the reasons for which the transformations that occurred on the consulting market are perceived differently by each of the countries that were analysed.
A first step in the process of understanding the management consultancy is represented by defining it, first according to the vision of well-known authors, experienced consultants and secondly, according to the vision of profession organism on international and local level. In order to understand the way consultancy evolved in time it is necessary to present a short history with focus on the moments that led to the transformations which we have nowadays in this industry. The last part of the work was dedicated to the comparative analysis of the consultancy markets in the five countries. The novelty degree of the work is represented by the fact that all the strong points identified in the case of the four countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Finland) will constitute possible development directions for the Romanian consulting market.
This paper investigates organisational-level attributes that allow European SMEs to choose equity-based modes of entry to foreign markets, thus becoming micro-multinationals. We hypothesize that international R&D cooperation (hypothesis 1) and using digital marketing (hypothesis 2) by SMEs increase their likelihood of becoming a mMNE. These hypotheses are tested through a logistic regression analysis based on a large sample of European companies drawn from the Flash Eurobarometer study. Separate regression models are estimated for companies originating from EU-13 and EU-15. Hypothesis 1 is supported by both samples. Hypothesis 2 is supported in the EU-15 sample. Our identification of organisational-level attributes that increase the likelihood of SMEs choosing equity-based internationalisation contributes to International Entrepreneurship entry mode literature.
Olufemi Amos Akinbola, Solomon Akpoviroro Kowo and Olugbenga Abiola Ojo
Research Background: Unemployment has been a major inhibitor of growth and development in Nigeria and it has been a perpetual problem that has proven insurmountable despite various governmental administration interventions and commercial policies to encourage the influx of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As such, this study examined the effect of requisite skill availability (RSA) on multinational Corporations locational strategy (LS) as there has always been skill mismatch inhibiting employability.
Research Methodology: The study adopted a cross sectional research design and considered 5 multinational corporations in Nigeria by a random sampling technique. The statistical tools used included multiple regressions and a Correlation analysis through SPSS.
Results: The results indicated (RSA) has a significant positive relationship with locational strategy (at p = 0.004). It was also observed that other controlling variables as trade facilitation, foreign ownership policy and structural infrastructural availability also has a significant positive effect.
Novelty: The study recommends that; the government should provide an education and personal development platform that would make its citizenry employable based on the skills that are needed by multinational corporations to be localized in the country.
Agnieszka Głodowska, Bożena Pera and Krzysztof Wach
Purpose: Strategy determines the patterns of internationalization. The speed, scale, and scope of internationalization are important dimensions from the perspective of firms’ behaviors and activities. The aim of the article is to identify and verify the relationship between the international strategy and its impact on three dimensions of the studied phenomenon.
Methodology: The article uses a quantitative approach. The survey was conducted on a sample of 355 internationalized firms from Poland, varying in size.
Findings: The analysis with t test and U test (ANOVA) shows a correlation between a company’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization.
Research limitations/implications: While considering a firm’s development, especially its international growth, one should plan the activities related to entering into foreign markets. The results presented in this article are just a starting point for further analyses. In an attempt to eliminate its limitations, further research should focus on building a comprehensive model that includes the remaining components of international strategy and other categories that stimulate internationalization processes.
Originality: The originality of this article lies in three elements: (i) the article comprehensively captures the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization at the same time, (ii) the strategy is introduced as a determining factor of the scale, scope, and speed of internationalization, and (iii) the article enriches empirical studies about emerging markets such as Poland.