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Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the predisposing effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) on Pasteurella spp. infection in naturally-induced pneumonia in cattle by immunohistochemical labelling.

Material and Methods: Lungs of cattle slaughtered in the slaughterhouse were examined macroscopically, and 100 pneumonic samples were taken. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin by routine methods. Sections 5 μm in thickness were cut. The streptavidin-peroxidase method (ABC) was used to stain the sections for immuno-histochemical examination.

Results: BRSV antigens were found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoles and within inflammatory cell debris and inflammatory exudate in bronchial lumens. Pasteurella spp. antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of bronchi and bronchioles, and in cells in the lumens of bronchi and bronchioles. Eleven cases were positive for only one pathogen (six for BRSV and five for Pasteurella spp.), while 35 cases were positive for 2 pathogens: BRSV plus P. multocida (n = 21) or M. haemolytica (n = 14).

Conclusion: The presence of high levels of BRSV in dual infections indicates that BSRV may be the main pneumonia-inducing agent and an important predisposing factor for the formation of Pasteurella spp. infections in cattle naturally afflicted with pneumonia.

antibody titre against M. haemolytica decreases to a low level at 5 weeks of age and seroconversion occurs via the calf’s own immune response ( 9 ). Therefore, young calves should be vaccinated at an early age to prevent BRD. Early vaccination of young calves is nevertheless far from universal. A number of studies have demonstrated that acquired antibodies may compromise the effect of vaccination ( 7 , 14 , 16 ). It has been reported that Holstein dairy calves which were vaccinated at two and four weeks of life with live M. haemolytica vaccine and calves which

.: Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex. Anim Health Res Rev 2008, 8, 215-229. 24. Urban-Chmiel R., Wernicki A., Puchalski A., Mikucki P.: Evaluation of M. haemolytica leukotoxin prepared in nonsupplemented and BSA or FBS supplemented RPMI 1640 medium. Pol J Vet Sci 2004, 7, 1-8. 25. Urban-Chmiel R., Wernicki A., Puchalski A., Dec M.: The effect of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation on selected immunological parameters in bovine leukocytes in vitro. Acta Vet Brno 2009, 78, 589-594. 26. Urban-Chmiel R., Hola P., Lisiecka U

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to report the primary gross and microscopic lesions, as well as etiological agents of field cases of pneumoenteritis in neonate and juvenile calves. The research was done with 370 calves from 6 cattle farms in 4 regions of the country. The age of the animals was from 24 hours to 25 days. Clinical and epidemiological studies were carried out with newborn and growing calves in all farms. For rapid antigenic and viral detection of pathogens, Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306 Detection of Rota, Corona, E.coli F5, Crypto and Clostridium perf. in bovine stool (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium), and Monoclonal Antibody anti-bovine Coronavirus FITC conjugated) 0,5 ml (20X), BIO 023, (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium) were used. Eighteen carcasses of calves with signs of pneumoenteritis syndrome (PES) were submitted to gross anatomy and histopathological studies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was the main etiological agent involved in calf pneumoenteritis. The macro- and micro lesions in the lung and the ileum of calves affected by PES are relevant with regard to the differential diagnosis of the syndrome and its differentiation from respiratory (IBR, BVD, BRSV, M. haemolytica etc.) and intestinal (Cryptosporidium parvum, bovine rotaviruses, bovine coronaviruses and Escherichia coli K99 (F5) diseases in this category of animals.

., Kankofer M., Mikucki P., Puchalski A., Tokarzewski S.: Evaluation of plasma cortisol and TBARS levels in calves after short-term transportation. Rev Med Vet 2006, 157, 30-34. 21. Wernicki A., Urban-Chmiel R., Mikucki P., Puchalski A., Kankofer M.: The influence of transport stress on the humoral immunological response of calves induced by M. haemolytica leukotoxin. Pol J Vet Sci 2003, 6, 40-45. 22. Zavy M.T., Juniewicz P.E., Phillips W.A., von Tungeln D.L.: Effects of initial restraint, weaning, and transport stress on baseline and ACTH stimulated cortisol responses in