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.). Polish Scientific Philosophy. The Lvov-Warsaw School. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Copi, I.M. (1954). An Introduction to Logic. New York: MacMillan. Copi, I.M. (1965). Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan, 2nd ed. Czeżowski, T. (2000). On logical culture. In T. Czeżowski, Knowledge, Science, and Values. A Program for Scientific Philosophy (pp. 68-75). Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi. Eemeren, F. H. van, and R. Grootendorst (1992). Argumentation, Communication, and Fallacies: A Pragma-Dialectical Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Eemeren, F. H. van, B. Garssen, E


In this article, the author attempts to identify the sources of good and evil as undertaken by the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy (LWSP) founded by Kazimierz Twardowski. Such attempts were undertaken by both Twardowski himself and his closest students and associates; Władysław Witwicki, Tadeusz Kotarbiński. Tadeusz Czeżowski, and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. The best-known approach is Kotarbiński’s independent ethics in which the author refers to Aristotle perceiving such potential in the characteristics of each individual as to distinguish elementary qualities in the form of opposites including opposition to good and evil. According to this approach, man acts in an evil manner because he stops following the natural voice of his own heart and instead implements set proposals provided by external factors. In the opinion of the author, the proposals formulated within the LWSP can form the basis for a rational explanation of the atrocities committed during World War II which modern ethics, being focused on neutral metaethical issues, fails to do.

delegacji polskiej na Międzynarodowym Kongresie Filozofii Naukowej w Sorbonie w roku 1935 [Inaugural Speech to the Polish representatives at the International Congress of Scientific Philosophy in Sorbonne in 1935], trans. by J. Hartman. In: A. Brożek – A. Chybińska (eds.): Fenomen szkoły lwowsko–warszawskiej [ Phenomenon of the Lvov–Warsaw School ]. Lublin: Academicon, pp. 157–160. AJDUKIEWICZ, K. (1985): W sprawie artykułu prof. A Schaffa o moich poglądach filozoficznych [Regarding prof. A Schaff’s article related to my philosophical views]. In: Ajdukiewicz: Język i


It is argued that the source of complexity in language is twofold: repetition, and syntactic embedding. The former enables us to return again and again to the same subject across many sentences, and to maintain the coherence of an argument. The latter is governed by two forms of complexification: the functor-argument structure of all languages and the operator-bound-variable mechanism of familiar formal languages. The former is most transparently represented by categorial grammar, and an extension of this can adequately describe the syntax of variable binders. Both developments have roots within the work of the Lvov-Warsaw School.

Phaenomenologica , 15 , 93–103. Rzepa, T. (1991). Psychologiczne poglądy Kazimierza Twardowskiego [Psychological views of Kazimierz Twardowski]. Studia Philosophiae Christianae , 27 (2), 163–175. Rzepa, T. (1992). Psychologia w szkole lwowsko-warszawskiej [Psychology in the Lvov-Warsaw School]. Przegląd Filozoficzny – Nowa Seria , 1 (1), 35–45. Stumpf, C. (1891). Psychologie und Erkenntnistheorie. Abhandlungen der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften , 19 (2), 465–516. Stumpf, C. (1906a). Erscheinungen und psychische Funktionen . Berlin, Germany: Verlag der

. Woleński, J. Alfred Tarski (1901-1983), In A. Garrido and U. Wybraniec-Skardowska (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present , Basel: Birkhäuser, 2018, pp. 361-371. 11. Woleński, J. Essays in the History of Logic and Logical Philosophy , Cracov: Jagiellonian University Press, 1999. 12. Woleński, J. Essays on Logic and Its Applications in Philosophy , Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2011. 13. Woleński, J. Historico-Philosophical Essays , vol. 1, Kraków: Copernicus Center Press, 2013. 14. Woleński, J. L’école de

-Warsaw School of Logic, Lvov-Warsaw School of Logic. The International Interdisciplinary Conference Philosophical Basis for Making Decisions and Non- Classical Logics has been organized by dr. Andrew Schumann, dr. Włodzimierz Zięba, dr. Paweł Balcerak, dr. Konrad Szocik on the 140th anniversary of the birth of Professor Jan Łukasiewicz (born on December, 21st 1878 in Lviv (Polish: Lwów), a city in today’s Ukraine, and died on February, 13th 1956), who was a famous representative of Lviv-Warsaw School of Logic with contributions to philosophical logic, mathematical


This paper discusses the main logical ideas put forward by Jan Łukasiewicz within their historical context and further development.

. Woods (ed.), 4, 2017, pp. 3571-3581. 10. Beziau, J.-Y. The Pyramid of Meaning, In J. Ceuppens, H. Smessaert, J. van Craenenbroeck and G. Vanden Wyngaerd (eds.), A Coat of Many Colours - D60, Brussels, 2018. 11. Beziau, J.-Y. Logic Prizes et Cætera , Logica Universalis 12, 2018, pp. 271-296. 12. Beziau, J.-Y. The Lvov-Warsaw School: A True Mythology, In A. Garrido and U. Wybraniec-Skardowska (eds), The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present , Basel: Birkhäuser, 2018, pp. 779-815. 13. Beziau, J.-Y. 1st World Logic Day: 14 January 2019, Logica Universalis 13, 2019

consciousness are mediated by signs, Professor Jerzy Bobryk also turned to other research topics from the very heart of semiotics, related to human culture understood as a set of semiotic systems. He received the title of humanities professor in 2013 upon a motion of the Research Council of the Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. At the Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences he headed the Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Psychology Lab. Professor Jerzy Bobryk was a leading expert on the output of the Lvov- -Warsaw School and Kazimierz