References Agrawal, A. A. 2001. Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species. – Science 294: 321–326. DOI: 10.1126/science.1060701 Amrhein, V., Kunc, H. P. & Naguib, M. 2004. Seasonal patterns of singing activity vary with time of day in the Nightingale (Lusciniamegarhynchos) . – The Auk 121: 110–117. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0110:SPOSAV]2.0.CO;2 Ács, Z. & Kováts, D. 2013. Phylogenetic patterns of a nightingale population in a contact zone of Lusciniamegarhynchos and L. luscinia in Hungary. – North-Western Journal of Zoology 9
During the years 2002-2010, distribution and numbers of eight bird species were studied in the whole city of Wrocław, SW Poland (293 km2). The estimation for these species are as follow: Streptopelia turtur: 3 breeding pairs, Upupa epops: 1, Cuculus canorus: 49, Emberiza hortulana: 7, Luscinia megarhynchos: 214-286, Phoenicurus phoenicurus: 87-118, Turdus pilaris: 105-150, Hippolais icterina: 136-181. In comparison with 1980‘s and 1990’s, a rapid increase in the numbers P. phoenicurus, and T. pilaris, and a slight increase of L. megarhynchos and Cuculus canorus were documented. T. pilaris began to breed in the city in the end of 1990‘s. The increase may indicate that the habitats in Wrocław improved both in regard to food availability, nesting sites and other environmental requisitions. The increase in the numbers recorded for C. canorus, P. phoe-nicurus, and L. megarhynchos may also be a result of good conditions prevailing in their wintering grounds in sub-Saharan Africa.
References Ács, Z. & Kováts, D. 2013. Phylogenetic patterns of a nightingale population in a contact zone of Lusciniamegarhynchos and L. luscinia in Hungary. – North-Western Journal of Zoology 9(2): 365–373. Bairlein, F., Dierschke, J., Dierschke, V., Salewski, V., Geiter, O., Hüppop, K., Köppen, U. & Fiedler, W. 2014. Atlas des Vogelzugs [Bird Migration Atlas]. – AULA-Verlag, pp. 471–472. (in German with English Summary) Barišić, S. 2013. Slavuj, Lusciniamegarhynchos , Common Nightingale. – In: Kralj, J., Barišić, S., Tutiš, V. & Ćiković, D. (eds.) Atlas
Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha) was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha), gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha) were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha) were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%), in/on buildings (30.2%) and in trees/shrubs (25.6%). Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.
A New Species of the Genus Proctophyllodes (Analgoidea, Proctophyllodidae) from Ukraine
The species Proctophyllodes lusciniae Burdejnaja et Kivganov sp. n. from the Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos C. L. Brehm, 1831 and the Thrush Nightingale L. luscinia Linnaeus, 1758 (Passeriformes) (type locality: Zmeinij Island, Ukraine) is described. The new species, belongs to the glandarinus species group and morphologically similar to P. doleophyes Gaud, 1957 from Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Pallas, 1764).
There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha) of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland). In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8%) and insectivores (37.9 %). Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris) an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.
In 2010, an attempt was made to quantify bird species breeding in the Opava Mts. and their foothill (c. 135 km2, including c. 40 km2 [31%] of forests). The area is situated in the extreme south of Opole Silesia, SSW Poland. For most non-passerine species, total counts were made for the whole area (distribution of their breeding pairs is shown on maps), while for most passerine species, semi-quantitative studies were conducted. A total of 116 breeding and two probably breeding bird species were recorded. Changes in breeding avifauna of the area during the years 1880-2010 are also analysed based on literature search. A total of 134 breeding bird species were recorded over the 130 years. During the years 1990-2010, decreae in numbers has been evidenced for the following species: Perdix perdix, Tetrastes bonasia, Tyto alba, Athene noctua, Corvus frugilegus, and Nycifraga caryocatactes, In the same period, increase in numbers has been documented for species such as: Accipiter gentilis, Falco tinnunculus, Columba oenas, Jynx torquilla, Dryocopus martius, Picus canus, Picus viridis, Motacilla cinerea, Luscinia megarhynchos, Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Saxicola rubicola, Locustella naevia, Locustella fluviatilis, Corvus corax and Corvus cornix. Opava Mts. and its foothills constitute an imporant conservation area. Fifteen species listed in Annex I of the Bird Directive of the E.U. were recorded there, including a sizable population of Ficedula albicollis.
References Ács, Z. & Kováts, D. 2013. Phylogenetic patterns of a Nightingale population in a contact zone of Lusciniamegarhynchos and L. luscinia in Hungary. – North-Western Journal of Zoology 9(2): 365–373. Alerstam, T. 2006. Conflicting evidence about long-distance animal navigation. – Science 313(5788): 791–794. DOI: 10.1126/science.1129048 Bairlein, F., Dierschke, J., Dierschke, V., Salewski, V., Geiter, O., Hüppop, K., Köppen, U. & Fiedler, W. 2014. Atlas des Vogelzugs [Bird Migration Atlas]. – AULA-Verlag, p. 471. (in German with English Summary
): 433-443. Majer, J. (2004): [Introduction to ecology]. - Dialóg Campus Kiadó, Budapest-Pécs. (in Hungarian) Némethová, D. (2007): Density-dependent habitat selection in Nightingale ( Lusciniamegarhynchos C. L. Brehm) in selected windbreaks of SW Slovakia. - Ekologia Bratislava 26: 313-321. PECBMS (2007): State of Europe's Common Birds 2007. - CSO / RSPB, Prague. Pierce, R. A., Farrand, D. T. & Kurtz, W. B. (2001): Projecting the bird community response resulting from the adoption of shelterbelt agroforestry practices in Eastern Nebraska. - Agroforestry Systems 53