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Folyamatok antropogén hatásra megváltozó dinamikája: Egyensúly és érzékenység vizsgáta folyóvizi környezetben. Akadémiai doktori értekezés. Szeged, 165 p. (In Hungarian) Kiss, T., Balogh, M. 2015. Characteristics of point-bar development under the influence of a dam: Case study of the Dráva River at Sigetec, Croatia. Journal of Env. Geogr. 8 (1-2), 23-30. DOI: 10.1515/jengeo-2015-0003 Kiss T., Fiala, K., Sipos, G. 2008. Alterations of channel parameters in response to river regulation works since 1840 on the Lower Tisza River (Hungary). Geomorphology 98, 96-110. DOI: 10

Abstract

Along the Lower Tisza River (Hungary) the water level of the floods reached new record stages in 1998 and 2006, resulting in 80 cm increase in the peak flood level since the “great flood of 1970”. Due to the gradual weakening of the levee-system caused by the several long-lasting floods, the question has arisen, that as in case of a levee breach or failure how would it modify the hydrological parameters of the river. The aim of the research is to create a hydrological model to analyse the effects (as stage reduction, slope and stream power) of two different levee breaches: one happening before the peak of the flood and another at the time of the flood level. The simulated levee breaching happened on the Tisza River at Mindszent, and the data-set of the 2006 flood was used for the modelling (at that time no levee failure happened in Hungary, and it was the greatest flood in history).

In the simulation the levee was broken at a point, where the channel is very close and intensively eroding, thus there is a real risk of a levee failure. If the levee would be broken a well defined area (reservoir) would be flooded, surrounded by the secondary levees and the rim of the high floodplain. During the simulation the HEC-RAS 4.1. ArcGIS 10.1 and HEC-GeoRAS software were applied.

The greatest changes in the hydrology of Tisza occurred in the cross section where the levee breached, though the effects propagated upstream and downstream too. Due to the water outflow from the Tisza the greatest stage reduction effect was 1.54±0.1 m. The slope conditions changed too, as it increased from 4 cm/km to 6.5 cm/km in the upstream reach, while downstream of the failure point it decreased from 3.5 cm/km to 1.9 cm/km. At the same time the stream power increased from 4 W/m to 5.5 W/m in the upstream section, while it decreased from 3.5 W/m to 1.5 W/m in the downstream reach. Comparing the results of the simulations at different stages (one at the highest stage and one at 1.0 m lower stage) it seems that the hydrological parameters did not change considerably (1%), though in a case of a levee failure at higher the reservoir reached the maximal water level sooner, though less water was stored in it, as the fall of the river was continuous

Abstract

Flood conveyance of floodplains is significantly influenced by the riparian vegetation cover, since vegetation affects flow velocity, therefore has a considerable impact on flood height and rate and pattern of sedimentation. However, climate change promotes the spread of invasive species, and their rapid growth results in dense vegetation stands, thus they have a significant impact on floodwater hydraulics. The aims of the present study are (1) to analyse the long-term changes in land-use and vegetation density on the Lower Tisza River, (2) to evaluate the role of the invasive Amorpha fruticosa in increasing vegetation density, and (3) to model the effect of dense floodplain vegetation on flood level and flood conveyance. Long-term (1784-2017) changes of land-use suggest that in natural conditions the study area was occupied by wetlands (92%), thus water covered the area for almost the whole year. In the 19th century, after levee constructions the wetlands were replaced by meadows and pastures (94%), then by the end of the 20th century planted and riparian forests replaced these land-covers. As a result, the mean roughness (0.14) of the floodplain has increased threefold until the early 21st century. Today forests are invaded by Amorpha fruticosa, which increases the vegetation density by 3% in riparian forests, by 23% in forest plantations, and by up to 100% in abandoned pastures and a rable lands. According to the results of HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System) and CES (Conveyance Estimation System) models, if floodplain vegetation was managed and Amorpha fruticosa was cleared from the floodplain, peak flood level would decrease by 15 cm. Due to dense vegetation, the flood conveyance decreased by 4-6%, and the presence of Amorpha fruticosa reduced the flood flow velocities by 0.014-0.016 m/s. Accordingly, clearance of the floodplain from Amorpha fruticosa would have positive effects on flood protection, since peak flood stages would decrease and flood waves would shorten.

: Experimental design and statistical models. Archeometry 41, 339-364. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1999.tb00987.x Hernesz, P. 2015. Késő-pleisztocén és holocén ártérfejlődés az Alsó- Tisza mentén. (Late Pleistocene and Holocene floodplain development along the Lower Tisza River). PhD dissertation, 118 p. (in Hungarian) Hu, G., Zhang, J.F., Qui, W.L., Zhou, L.P. 2010. Residual OSL signals in modern fluvial sediments from Yellow River (HuabgHe) and the implications for dating young sediments. Quaternary Geochronology 5, 187-193. DOI: 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.05.003 Kiss, T., Hernesz

.M. 2003. River meander behaviour and instability : a framework for analysis. Transact. Inst. British Geogr. , 28(2): 238–253. Hooke J.M. 2006. Human impacts on fluvial systems in the Mediterranean region. Geomorphology , 79(3-4): 311–335. Hope A., Bart R. 2012. Evaluation of a Regionalization Approach for Daily Flow Duration Curves in Central and Southern California Watersheds. J. Am. Water Res. Associat., 48 (1): 123-133. Kiss T., Fiala K., Sipos G. 2008. Alterations of channel parameters in response to river regulation works since 1840 on the Lower Tisza River

.L., McDowell P.F., Marcus W.A., 2006. Accuracy assessment of georectified aerial photographs: implications for measuring lateral channel movement in a GIS. Geomorphology 74(1-4): 1-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph. 2005.07.001 Kiss T., Fiala K., Sipos G., 2008. Alterations of channel parameters in response to river regulation works since 1840 on the Lower Tisza River (Hungary). Geomorphology 98: 96-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2007.02.027 Lawler D.M., 1993. The measurement of riverbank erosion and lateral channel change: A review. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 18(9): 777

changes. Geomorphology, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.01.002 KISS, T., BLANKA, V. (2012): River channel response to climate- and human-induced hydrological changes: Case study on the meandering Hernád River, Hungary. Geomorphology, 175–176: 115–125. KISS, T., FIALA, K., SIPOS, G. (2008): Alterations of channel parameters in response to river regulation works since 1840 on the Lower Tisza River (Hungary). Geomorphology, 98(1–2): 96–110. KNIGHTON, D. (1998): Fluvial forms and processes. A new perspective. London, Hodder Arnold. KOVÁČIK, M. [ed