The aims of the study were to characterize shoreline soil development and evolution and to determine land use changes (19th to 20th centuries) in the direct catchment of the completely vanished Gardeja lake. The study was based on pedological research and analysis of cartographic materials. The main factor determining the current development of shoreline zone soil cover at the former Gardeja lake was human activity (lake dewatering, further drainage and human-induced erosion). Studied soil profiles were developed from mineral, non-lacustrine materials (upper parts of the slopes) and lacustrine sediments covered with colluvium. The analyzed soil catenas are representative for the undulated young glacial landscape of Northern Poland. The biggest changes of the land use were observed for the class of grasslands that is combined with shrubs (increase of cover area).
Several shallow lakes have been drained to make way for additional arable land or pasture in the Mazurian Lakeland (NE Poland) since the 19th century. As a result of these hydrotechnical works, the water level usually decreased by approximately 6 m. Bottom sediments of the former lakes were transformed into surface limnic soils. Part of them, developed from highly calcareous gyttja, may be called limnic rendzinas. However, the present position of these soils in the Polish Soil Classification is unclear. Where the lake has undergone a natural terrestrialisation, the gyttja is covered with peat and mursh. The raw gyttja soils differ in type of organic matter forming the topsoil horizon and are subject to further transformation, the direction of which depends on the sequence of sediments in the profile, mursh formation, mineral admixture and adjoining colluvial phenomena. Common features of all these soils are high content of calcium carbonate in the surface horizons, alkaline reaction, high groundwater level and periodical flooding. The paper presents the variability of limnic rendzinas based on many examples from the Mazurian Lakeland (NE Poland). Finally, new type additions were suggested to the next edition of the Polish Soil Classification.
Construction and operation of water mills had influenced the transformation of the relief and water conditions, as well as the soil cover around them. The study area includes the former Oleszek mill pond basin, located near the Borówno village, western part of the Chełmińskie Lakeland, about 20 km northeast of Toruń. The objective of the study was to determine the genesis of the soils developed from the Oleszek mill pond basin sediments. Five soil profiles were selected in the basin of the former mill pond, within the 550 m transect located along the Struga Rychnowska river. All of the analysed soils developed from the sediments filling the former mill pond basin. They have been developed as a result of a number of overlapping processes such as mud-forming, alluvial, colluvial and gleyic process. According to the Polish classification system (Classification of Polish Soils 2011) (CPS) two of the soils (profiles 3 and 4) derived from organo-mineral and organic materials are typical organic limnic soils. Systematic position of another two soils (2 and 5) was proposed as muddy soils. Due to the problems of classification of such soils, implementation of the muddy soils or muddy-gleyic soils subtypes (in Polish: gleby mułowate lub mułowato-glejowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Classification of Polish Soils. These four profiles were classified as Histosols (profiles 3 and 4) and Gleysols (profiles 2 and 5) in WRB (2014). Pedons developed from alluvial materials (alluvial soils in CPS 2011 or Fluvic Phaeozems in WRB 2014) occurred in the proximal part of the basin.