Juraj Chebeň, Drahoslav Lančarič and Radovan Savov
The Necessity of Implementation of Diversity Management Caused by the Actual Development of Cross-border Labour Mobility in EU
The article refers to the problemacy of international labour mobility seen as a response to many changes in political as well as in economical and social development in Europe in the last decade. In the first part of the article there is a short summary of the mentioned development in the area of immigration and labour mobility in Europe. The second part of the article deals with diversity in general and with managing of diversity in particular, there are some practical examples of possible problems as well. The last part of the article offers some suggestions for successful implementation of diversity management in enterprises.
Blanchard O., Katz L., (1992), Regional Evolutions, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, No. 1, pp. 1–75.
Bräuninger D., Majowski Ch., (2011), Labourmobility in the euro area, EU Monitor 85, Deutsche Bank Research.
Broyer S., Cafet J.C., Dumaine -Martin V., (2011), Low labourmobility is more than ever an obstacle to euro-zone cohesion, Flash Economics, NATIXIS, No. 24 (http://cib.natixis.com/fushdoc.aspx?id=56192, accessed:24–12–2012).
Ester P., Krieger H., (2008), Comparing labourmobility in Europe and the US: facts and pitfalls, Over
Carlos Coca Gamito CDFMR and Georgios Baltos CDFMR
integration – the Eurozone. Labourmobility is especially important in the context of the latter as a traditional mechanism of adjustment to asymmetric economic shocks. Mobility usually absorbs a certain amount of the asymmetric shocks over time. Similarly, movements associated with these shocks have increased because of the euro-monetary integration, and have a direct impact on wages due to such respective adjustments ( Arpaia et al., 2016 ).
The latest Eurozone financial crisis is a characteristic long-term macro-economic shock carrying over asymmetric effects. This
Timotej Jagrič, Tomaž Lešnik, Stefan O. Grbenic and Vita Jagrič
Compliance Behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics , 47 (2), 133-145. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026004716676
Dubin, A. J. & Wilde, L. L. (1988). An Empirical Analysis of Federal Income Tax Auditing and Compliance. National Tax Journal , 41 (1), 61-74.
Ernst & Young. (2014). Triangular Cases –Tax obstacles to labourmobility in the European Union and tax avoidance . Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/sites/taxation/files/docs/body/mobility_of_workers.pdf
European Commission. (2019). 2018 Annual Report on Intra- EU LabourMobility
The article tackles the problem of developing plurilingual competencies through vocationally oriented foreign language in Sweden. The author analyses the pedagogical conditions of realization of plurilingual education at upper-secondary schools, vocational and higher education establishments and the aspects of teacher education for this purpose. The vocational foreign language education in Sweden is determined by the country’s multilingual policy and English is given much priority in many societal domains including educational. English and other foreign languages are used as the medium of instruction while teaching the content of other subjects. At the higher educational level students are encouraged to write research papers in English. Participation of Sweden in numerous multilingual initiatives of the Council of Europe providing the opportunities for both teachers and learners of vocational and higher educational institutions with the opportunities of the cross-border cooperation in this sphere and international mobility. Still, there is a problem of teacher’s training for teaching foreign languages in professional spheres. Using skills as a framework of foreign languages for specific purposes teachers are provided with the necessary knowledge and tools to deal with their own students’ specializations.
The formidable surge in the volume of international trade after 1960 stimulated surveys designed to ascertain to what degree the commercial flows among nations reflected the structure of their economies, in other words, how tight was the correlation between international exchanges and the specific attributes of participating nations. In fact, scholars were keen to test the relevance of the conventional Heckscher-Ohlin theory, that is, to what extent did nations’ exports reflect their endowment with factors of production, more specifically, whether their exports used their abundant factors intensively. I try to show that, although most of the tests reached their purpose in that they confirmed the conventional theory’s predictions, in certain cases such as Japan, whose economy is arguably idiosyncratic, factor specificity is more relevant than factor intensity in explaining, not only the country’s international specialization but also the premises of its uncanny 20th century ascendance to the top of the world economy.
Die Resilienz einer regionalen Ökonomie hängt maßgeblich davon ab, inwiefern relevantes spezifisches Humankapital zwischen deren Wirtschaftsaktivitäten wieder verwertet werden kann. Zu diesem Zweck wird das Instrumentarium Industry Space, das sich auf die Ähnlichkeiten in der Nutzung von Humankapital bzw. Skill-Relatedness zwischen Branchen stützt, zur Beschreibung der Wissensbasis zwischen den vorhandenen Wirtschaftszweigen einer Region sowie zur Analyse von dessen Wachstumsperspektiven und Resilienz vorgestellt. Beim Industry Space handelt es sich um ein Netzwerk von Branchen, die skill-related sind. Am Beispiel des Saarlandes wird mithilfe dieses Instrumentariums für den Zeitraum 2008 bis 2012 gezeigt, dass dessen Resilienz durch die Spezialisierung auf traditionelle Industriezweige, welche miteinander skill-related sind, gestärkt wird. Aber die im Zuge des Strukturwandels dieser Altindustrieregion entstandenen jungen technologieintensiven Branchen sind nicht mit dem älteren verarbeitenden Gewerbe verbunden, so dass hierdurch regionale Wachstumspotenziale unausgeschöpft bleiben.
Employees must adapt to these permanent changes by acquiring new skills required to use new technologies. One of the phenomena developed in order to meet these challanges is labour mobility. For the purpose of economic and social mobility, labour is a form of movement in relation to the ever-changing needs of the productive factors. Mobility in the labor market can be considered from several aspects. At the EU level, the phenomenon of labour mobility is promoted by the desire to meet the challanges arising in the labour market. From a economic and political point of view, the free movement of people is inteded to create a common market for labour and promoting EU citizens, by removing barriers in this area.
European labour markets have become increasingly accessible to foreign workers because of increased global migration and the implementation of international labour mobility agreements. Yet, skilled immigrants have lower occupational attainment. The regulated occupations, however, are more inclusive of immigrants than unregulated occupations. This article investigates immigrants’ likelihood of gaining access to licensed occupations in Norway, as well as how this varies between regions of origin and between immigrants with a foreign or domestic degree to determine whether employment outcomes are due to different impacts of regulatory frameworks. The empirical investigation uses administrative register data that cover the years 2003–2012. The results show that there are no significant differences between the immigrant groups with a domestic degree, while the results for immigrants with foreign degrees signal that without international agreements on mutual recognition of education credentials, those who are educated for a licensed profession are somewhat restricted in performing it.
Bräuninger D., Majowski Ch. (2011), Labourmobility in the euro area, EU Monitor 85, Deutsche Bank Research
Broyer S., Caf et J.C., Dumaine-Martin V. (2011), Low labourmobility is more than ever an obstacle to euro-zone cohesion, Flash Economics, NATIXIS, No. 24 (http://cib.natixis.com/f ushdoc.aspx?id=56192, accessed: 24-12-2012)
Feldstein M.S. (1992), The Case Against EMU, The Economist, June 13
Feldstein M.S. (2011), The Euro and European Economic Conditions, NBER Working Paper 17617, Cambridge (http://www.nber.org/papers/w17617.pdf